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Microbes, Foodborne Illness, and Food Preservation

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Presentation on theme: "Microbes, Foodborne Illness, and Food Preservation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Microbes, Foodborne Illness, and Food Preservation

2 Food Spoilage Foodborne Illness
How do Microbes Affect Us? Food Spoilage Foodborne Illness

3 What is Food Spoilage? Microbes in food can cause the food to spoil (rot) Microbes cause millions of dollars of food to spoil each year

4 What is Foodborne Illness?
What is it? A disease caused by consuming contaminated foods or beverages Contamination caused by bacteria or virus Pathogen- harmful bacteria that can cause disease

5 What’s the Problem? Some microbes make us sick when we eat them. You can’t see these microbes!!!!!! The greatest dangers are microbes that produce toxins and causes human illness!

6 Is Foodborne Illness a Big Problem?
Over 76 million Americans get sick from foodborne microbes each year! About 5,000 Americans die from foodborne illness each year.

7 What Happens? Microbes pass from stomach to intestines
Microbes attach to intestine wall and prevent water from being absorbed, or nutrients from being absorbed Certain microbes release a toxin that will enter the bloodstream and travel through the entire body Up to 5000 people die every year

8 Symptoms Range from mild stomach & intestine problems to DEATH, including Upset Stomach Abdominal Cramps Nausea and vomiting Diarrhea Fever Dehydration

9 How Does Food get Contaminated?
Food is exposed to pathogens -When grown or raised 1. animals have pathogens in intestines already 2. vegetables grown in dirty soil, or watered with contaminated water -In factory or Slaughter House 1. meat exposed to pathogens from other meats

10 Example of Bacteria in Food
Bacteria naturally living in milk will spoil milk in two or three hours if left at room temperature. Putting milk in the refrigerator doesn’t kill bacteria already there, but it slows down the bacteria enough that the milk will stay fresh for a week or two.

11 How does Food get Contaminated?
By humans in their own kitchen 1. Poor hygiene 2. Using used dirty utensils 3. Using an old cutting board 4. Not washing your counters 5. Leaving food out of refrigerator 6. Not washing food

12 How can we Prevent Foodborne Illnesses?
1. Proper Hygiene and Handling of Food to keep pathogens away 2. Food Preservation Methods to keep food from spoiling

13 Why Does Preserving Food Help?
The basic idea - food preservation either: Slows down the activity of disease-causing bacteria Kills the bacteria altogether

14 Is Food Preservation New?
Food preservation is one of the oldest technologies used by human beings. Some food preservation methods have been around for thousands of years (e.g. pickling and sun-drying), while others are more modern (e.g. pasteurization and irradiation).

15 What is “sterile”? A food that is sterile contains no bacteria.
Unless sterilized and sealed, all food contains bacteria.

16 How Does This Work? We preserve food by changing the environment that the food is in (e.g. changing the temperature, oxygen, pH or by removing water).

17 Can you think of the different ways that food is preserved?

18 Common Food Preservation Methods Include:
Refrigeration and freezing Canning Dehydration (Drying Food) Freeze-Drying Salting Pickling Pasteurization Fermentation Chemical Preservation Irradiation

19 Food Preservation Methods: The Details

20 Food Preservation Physical Methods

21 Refrigeration and Freezing
Refrigeration and freezing are the most popular forms of food preservation in use today. Refrigeration = 32 ° F to 40 ° F Freezing = below 32° F

22 Refrigeration and Freezing
a. Refrigeration slows the growth of bacteria 1. bacteria is less active, but they are not killed 2. Food will still eventually spoil in time b. Freezing kills bacteria or cause it to become completely inactive

23 Canning Food -Used since 1825
=Food can be stored for long periods of time b. Process 1. Food is heated to a temperature that kills all bacteria 2. Container is sealed to prevent new bacteria from getting to food c. Can be in any sealable container 1. Milk cartons, fruits in jars, vegetables in cans

24 Canning Once you open the can, bacteria enter and begin attacking the food, so you have to "refrigerate the contents after opening"

25 Drying Evidence shows that Middle East and oriental cultures actively dried foods in the hot sun as early as 12,000 B.C.. Drying removes water from the food. Since most bacteria die or become inactive when dried, dried foods kept in air-tight containers can last quite a long time.

26 Drying (Dehydration) a. Food can be stored for long periods of time
b. Drying removes water from food 1. Bacteria grown in moist environments c. Process uses fans and high temperatures to dry the food d. Examples 1. beef jerky, powdered milk, pasta, instant rice, fruit chips

27 Sun-Dried Raisins

28 Salting salt causes the moisture to come out of the food
Eliminates water so bacteria can’t liv b. one of oldest preservation method

29 Pasteurization a. Food is heated to high temperature for a short time at °F to kill all microbes b. Used on milk and juices c. Food must be refrigerated after pasteurization

30 Food Irradiation Food is sterilized by using energy in the form of radiation 1. Does NOT make food radioactive Microbes are killed by radiation c. Used on fruit and vegetables 1. Kills insects, fungi, and bacteria 2. Delays ripening so food can be shipped

31 Irradiation Irradiation DOES NOT make food radioactive. The food never touches a radioactive substance. Irradiation destroys insects, fungi, and bacteria.

32 Vacuum Packing Air is removed from package before it is sealed
b. Without oxygen, bacteria and mold can not grow

33 Food Preservation Chemical Methods

34 Pickling a. Acidic environments prevent the growth of bacteria.
b. Usually uses vinegar, salt water, or an alcohol to preserve food c. Will drastically change the flavor of food so is not good for all types of food

35 Pickling or Fermentation
These leave food with a higher level of acid, making it an inhospitable environment for spoilage bacteria.

36 2. Fermentation a. encourages growth of “good” bacteria and prevent growth of “bad” bacteria b. Examples of fermented food: 1. bread, yogurt, wine, cheese, soy sauce c. Foods must be refrigerated

37 Fermentation Fermentation refers to the activity of bacteria and fungi. These microbes break food molecules into simple substances.

38 Smoked Foods Smoking adds chemicals from smoke to food that help destroy potential spoilage organisms.

39 3. Smoking a. Used to preserve meats 1. Heat Kills bacteria
2. chemicals from smoke kill microbes 3. Outer surface of meat is dried removing moisture

40 Food Preservatives If you look at the ingredient labels of different foods, you will see different types of chemicals used. All of these chemicals either prevent the activity of bacteria or kill the bacteria.

41 Pancake syrup can sit out because of the ingredients it contains.

42 Chemical Preservation
There are three classes of chemical preservatives commonly used in foods: Benzoates (such as sodium benzoate) Nitrites (such as sodium nitrite) Sulphites (such as sulphur dioxide)

43 The End

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