Presentation on theme: "Food Preservation for Food Processors Part I"— Presentation transcript:
1 Food Preservation for Food Processors Part I An interactive module about acidic foodsModule designed by Julie Garden-Robinson, Ph.D., L.R.D., Food and Nutrition Specialist, 2014
2 The following tips will help you navigate through each module. Click to go back and to move forward in the module.Before you begin, you’ll take a pretest.The pretest will open in a new window.When you are finished with the pretest, close the window to return to the module.A symbolizes a question slide. You’ll need to click forward to see the answer.
3 When you are finished with the module, you will take a post-test. Click this button to return to your position in the module after reading the definition slide.When you are finished with the module, you will take a post-test.The post-test will open in a new window.When you are finished with the post-test, close the window to return to the module.
4 PretestBefore we begin, let’s take a pretest to see how much you already know. Click here for the pretest.
5 Have a bright idea? Everyone loves my salsa and always asks me to bring it to potlucks.Maybe I should start selling it. I bet Icould make a fortune. Maybe I canretire and buy a house in Arizona –no, Florida. Heck, maybe both!
7 Hey, wait. Don’t give up.Go through this interactive module.It tells you what you need to knowabout processing acidified foods.Salsa is an acidified food.
8 Before we discuss the acidification process and regulations, let’s go over somebasics about types of preservation and alsowhat preserving means.
9 Food Preservation Definition: The process of treating and handling food insuch a way that it stop or greatly slowsspoilage to prevent foodborne illness whilemaintaining nutritional value, density,texture and flavor.
10 Factors that affect food spoilage Water availability (moisture)OxygenpHTemperature
11 True or false: Oxygen is a factor affecting food spoilage. Click the forward button to see the answer.
12 True or false: Oxygen is a factor affecting food spoilage.
13 Water Availability“Water availability” refers to the amount of water available for microbial growth. It is shown on a scale from 0 to 1.Bacteria grow in moist environments, so the higher the water availability, the greater the risk for microbial growth.A solute such as salt or sugar added to water “soaks” up the water, making it unavailable for bacterial growth.
15 Water AvailabilityBacteria, mold and yeast need a certain amount of water available to grow. As the water availability decreases, bacteria, mold and then yeast cease to grow.Bacteria stop growing below 0.85aWMolds stop growing below 0.75aWYeast stops growing below 0.6aW
16 Water availability of some common foods Food ExampleWater AvailabilityCheese spread0.95Soy sauce0.80Fudge sauce0.83Soft, moist pet foodPeanut butter0.70Dry milkLiverwurst0.96Salami0.82*Water availabilities greater than 0.85 support bacterial growth.
17 True or false: High water availability supports bacterial growth. Click forward to see the answer.
18 True or false: High water availability supports bacterial growth. Most bacteria grow best in products with high water availabilities.
19 Oxygen Aerobic reactions need oxygen. The browning of fruit is one example.Anaerobic reactions do not require oxygen.Clostridium botulinum is a type of bacteria that does not need oxygen to survive.
20 Fill in the blank: Bacteria that need oxygen to survive are ______. AerobicAnaerobicClick forward to see the answer.
21 Fill in the blank: Bacteria that need oxygen to survive are ______. AerobicAnaerobicAerobic bacteria need oxygen to survive and grow.
22 pH Foods have different pH values. Chemical reactions are decreased at very high and very low pH.A pH meter is used to determine the pH level of foods.
23 Temperature Warm temperatures increase chemical reactions. High temperatures can kill harmful microorganisms.High temperatures are critical for certain preservation methods:Pressure canningBoiling-water canningLow temperatures can slow andeventually stop chemical reactions.
24 = Preserve foods by: Green Beans Vinegar (Acid) + Adding an acid Adding saltDrying to remove moistureAdding sugarAdding chemical preservativesHeatingGreen Beans=Vinegar (Acid)+
25 Now that we know what to control to prevent food from spoiling, let’s reviewsome methods of preservation.
26 Types of preservation: DryingCuring and smokingFreezing and refrigerationFermentationPressure canningMaking jam and jellyPickling/acidification
27 Which of the following is a preservation method? DryingFreezingSmokingAll of the aboveClick the forward button to see the answer.
28 Which of the following is a preservation method? DryingFreezingSmokingAll of the above“D” is the correct answer.
29 Drying One of the oldest methods of preservation Removes moisture to delay and prevent bacterial growthSafe and easy-to-learn method of preservationA food dehydratoroften is usedMeats and fruits, suchas jerky, apples, bananas,mangos and tomatoes, arepopular items to dry
30 Fill in the blank: Drying preserves food by ______. adding an acidlowering the temperaturereducing the moisture contentClick the forward button to see the answer.
31 Fill in the blank: Drying preserves food by ______. adding an acidlowering the temperaturereducing the moisture content“C” is the correct answer. A food dehydrator or oven on a low temperature is used to dry foods for preservation.
32 Curing and Smoking Meats must be cured before they are smoked. Curing uses salt to reduce the moisture available to microorganisms.Nitrates and nitrites are added to inhibit the growth of Clostridium botulinum.Curing can take several hours to several weeks.
33 Fill in the blank: Curing preserves food by ______. adding an acidlowering the temperaturereducing the moisture contentClick the forward button to see the answer.
34 Fill in the blank: Curing preserves food by ______. adding an acidlowering the temperaturereducing the moisture content"C” is the correct answer. Salt is added to products being cured to reduce the moisture content.
35 Smoking After a product is cured, it can be smoked. Smoking usually is done in a smokehouse.The combination of heat and smoke dries and preserves the food.Smoking adds flavor to the product.Meat, poultry, game and fish all can be smoked.
36 Freezing and Refrigeration Are commonly used processes for preservingStops the growth of bacteria (freezing) or slows the growth of bacteria (refrigeration)Slows most chemical reactions
37 Does freezing food kill bacteria? YesNoClick the forward button to see the answer.
38 Does freezing food kill bacteria? YesNo“B” is the correct answer. Bacteria is not killed by freezing foods, but the lower temperature slows the growth of bacteria.
39 FermentationA microorganism such as yeast is added to a product to convert carbohydrates into an acid or an alcohol.These microorganisms consume the food and produce byproducts.Yogurt is one example.Bacteria is added to milk. The bacteria eat the sugar and produce lactic acid.Lactic acid reduces the pH of yogurt, which inhibits bacteria growth.
40 Which preservation method involves bacteria or yeast? DryingFermentingPicklingFreezingClick the forward button to see the correct answer.
41 Which preservation method involves bacteria or yeast? DryingFermentingPicklingFreezing“B” is the correct answer. Yogurt is an example of fermentation.
42 Pressure Canning Kills bacteria with high temperatures. A temperature greater than 240 F must be reached.Pressure canning is used when the product has a pH above 4.6.
43 Jams and Jellies Sugar reduces the amount of available water. Jams and jellies normally have a pH lower than 4.6.Jams and jellies cook during processing.
44 Post-testNow you have some basic knowledge about why we preserve food and the methods of food preservation.Before you move on to the next module, let’s take a post-test to see what you’ve already learned.Click here to take the post-test
45 Learn more about food preservation with the following online resources National Center for Home Food PreservationFDA - Acidified and Low Acid Canned FoodsNDSU Extension Service Food Preservation and Storage