Presentation on theme: "International Business An Asian Perspective"— Presentation transcript:
1 International Business An Asian Perspective ByCharles W.L. HillChow-Hou WeeKrishna UdayasankarWelcome to International Business, An Asian Perspective, by Charles W.L. Hill, Chow-Hou Wee and Krishna Udayasankar
3 What Is Globalization?The world is moving away from self-contained national economies toward an interdependent, integrated global economic systemGlobalization refers to the shift toward a more integrated and interdependent world economyYou’ve probably heard the term “globalization” before, but what does it mean? Globalization can be defined as the shift towards a more integrated and interdependent world economy. In other words, the world is moving away from self-contained national economies, toward an interdependent, integrated global system.What does this mean? Well, think for a moment about your day so far. Perhaps you work up this morning in a bed made by Sweden’s Ikea, got dressed in a shirt made in Guatemala and American Levi’s jeans that were produced in China. After putting on your Brazilian made shoes, and drinking an Italian-style latte, you drove to work in your Japanese Nissan that was manufactured in Tennessee. On the way to your job for a company that is headquartered in France, but has operations in Singapore, you might have talked to your friend on your Nokia cell phone that was designed in Finland, about getting together later for Spanish style tapas and Corona beer from Mexico.As you can see, your day has already been filled with the effects of globalization.You can think of globalization in terms of the globalization of markets and the globalization of production.
4 What Is The Globalization of Markets? Historically distinct and separate national markets are mergingIt no longer makes sense to talk about the “German market” or the “American market”Instead, there is the “global market”falling trade barriers make it easier to sell globallyconsumers’ tastes and preferences are converging on some global normfirms promote the trend by offering the same basic products worldwideThe globalization of markets refers to the merging of historically distinct and separate national markets into one huge global marketplace.As trade barriers between countries fall, companies like Ikea, Sony, and Coca-Cola are able to sell their product to a global market where consumers are more and more alike. In fact, in many industries, it’s no longer meaningful to talk about the “German market” or the “American market”. Instead, there’s just one global market.Keep in mind though, that the globalization of markets doesn’t mean that consumers are the same everywhere, and differences between markets no longer exist. National markets are still very relevant, challenging companies to develop different marketing strategies and operating procedures. For example, as you’ll see in the closing case, General Electric recognizes the importance of responding to local market differences and so has been working to develop a more international organization that is managed by individuals from around the world who understand local customers. We’ll talk more about these market differences in later chapters.What’s making it easier to sell internationally? Falling trade barriers for one thing, and, as we already mentioned, the convergence of consumer tastes and preferences.Keep in mind that as companies benefit from these global opportunities, they also promote even greater globalization by offering the same basic products worldwide.
5 What Is The Globalization of Production? Firms source goods and services from locations around the globe to capitalize on national differences in the cost and quality of factors of production like land, labor, and capitalCompanies canlower their overall cost structureimprove the quality or functionality of their product offeringThe second facet of globalization—the globalization of production, refers to the sourcing of goods and services from locations around the globe to take advantage of national differences in the cost and quality of factors of production like land, labor, and capital.Companies hope that by sourcing and producing their products in the optimal location, wherever in the world that might be, they will be able to better compete against their rivals.Boeing, for example, outsources about 65 percent of its 787 aircraft to foreign companies. About 35 percent of the jet will be made by three Japanese companies! Boeing believes that this strategy allows it to use the best suppliers in the world, an advantage that will help it win market share over its rival Airbus Industries.Even healthcare can be outsourced today! Hospitals now routinely send X-rays via the Internet to be read in India and some insurance companies even recommend having certain procedures conducted in foreign countries. You can learn more about this phenomenon in the Opening Case on The Globalization of American Healthcare in your text.
6 Why Do We Need Global Institutions? help manage, regulate, and police the global marketplacepromote the establishment of multinational treaties to govern the global business systemExamples includethe General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)the World Trade Organization (WTO)the International Monetary Fund (IMF)the World Bankthe United Nations (UN)Several global institutions have emerged to manage, regulate, and police the global marketplace, and to promote the establishment of multinational treaties to govern the global business system.We’ll talk in more detail about these institutions in later chapters, but for now, let’s take a quick look at some of them.The key institutions affecting international business are the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, or GATT, the World Trade Organization, or WTO, the International Monetary Fund, or IMF, the World Bank, and the United Nations, or UN.Let’s take a brief look at each one beginning with the World Trade Organization and its predecessor, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
7 What Do Global Institutions Do? The World Trade Organization (like its predecessor GATT)polices the world trading systemmakes sure that nation-states adhere to the rules laid down in trade treatiespromotes lower barriers to trade and investmentThe International Monetary Fund (1944) maintains order in the international monetary systemThe World Bank (1944) promotes economic developmentThe United Nations (1945)maintains international peace and securitydevelops friendly relations among nationscooperates in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rightsis a center for harmonizing the actions of nationsThe World Trade Organization is responsible for policing the world trading system, and making sure that members adhere to trade treaties.The 153 nations that account for about 97 percent of the world’s trade are all WTO members, so the organization is very influential in working toward an open business system where goods can cross national borders without barriers to trade and investment.The International Monetary Fund, or IMF, and the World Bank were created in 1944.The goal of the International Monetary Fund is to maintain order in the international monetary system, and as we’ll see in later chapters, the International Monetary Fund is a significant player in the global economy.The World Bank promotes economic development by making loans to cash-strapped nations wishing to make significant infrastructure improvements like building dams or roads.The United Nations, or UN, was established in 1945.The United Nations has three goals: to preserve peace through international cooperation, to cooperate in solving problems and in promoting respect for human rights, and to be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations.Nearly every country in the world belongs to the UN, and accepts its basic principles of international relations.
8 What Is Driving Globalization? The decline in barriers to the free flow of goods, services, and capital that has occurred since the end of World War IIsince 1950, average tariffs have fallen significantly and are now at 4 percentcountries have opened their markets to FDITechnological changemicroprocessors and telecommunicationsthe Internet and World Wide Webtransportation technologyWhat’s driving globalization?Two macro factors are important: first, the decline in trade and investment barriers since World War II, and second, technological change, specifically dramatic improvements in communication, information processing, and transportation technologies. Let’s talk about each of these.First, though, let’s go over a couple of definitions.International trade occurs when a firm exports goods or services to consumers in another country.Foreign direct investment (FDI) occurs when a firm invests resources in business activities outside its home country.At the end of World War II, many advanced nations committed to removing barriers that prevented the free flow of goods, services, and capital between countries.They formalized the process through the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, or GATT.Have they been successful? Yes, since 1950, average tariffs have fallen significantly and are now at just four percent.Foreign direct investment, or FDI, is also rising as countries open their market to firms.
9 Declining Trade And Investment Barriers Average Tariff Rates on Manufactured Products as Percent of ValueHere you can see how average tariff rates on manufactured products have dropped significantly over time.
10 What Does Globalization Mean For Firms? Lower barriers to trade and investment mean firms canview the world, rather than a single country, as their marketbase production in the optimal location for that activityTechnological change meanslower transportation costs - firms can disperse production to economical, geographically separate locationslower information processing and communication costs - firms can create and manage globally dispersed production systemslow cost global communications networks - help create an electronic global marketplacelow-cost transportation - help create global marketsglobal communication networks and global media - create a worldwide culture, and a global market for consumer productsWhat does globalization mean for firms?Well, low barriers to trade and investment mean that firms can see the world as their market, rather than a single country. Low trade and investment barriers also mean that firms can locate production facilities in the optimal location, wherever in the world that might be. Production and sales now take place in multiple markets creating interdependency between countries for goods and services.We can also look at the role of technological change in the globalization of markets.Major advances in communication, information processing, and transportation technology have made what had been possibilities into tangible realities!The cost of global communication has fallen for example, because advances in telecommunications and information processing help firms coordinate and control global organizations at a fraction of what it might have cost even a decade ago. The microprocessor that facilitates high-power, low-cost computing is perhaps the most important of these developments. Dell for example, takes advantage of these innovations to control its globally dispersed production system. When a customer submits an order via the company’s web site, it’s immediately transmitted to the suppliers of the various components, wherever they are located in the world. Suppliers have real time access to Dell’s order flows, and can then adjust their production accordingly. Dell uses inexpensive airfreight to transport its products to meet demand as needed. The company maintains a customer service operation in India where English speaking personnel handle calls from the U.S.Indeed, the Internet has made it possible for even small companies to play a role in the global economy. Yet, less than twenty years ago, this technology didn’t even exist. Growth in Internet usage has gone from fewer than 1 million users in 1990 to more than 1.6 billion users in 2009!Improvements in transportation such as containerization and the development of super freighters have also facilitated the growth of globalization. The time it takes people and products to get from one place to another has shrunk, as has the cost. Ecuador has been able to capitalize on falling transportation costs to become a global supplier of roses.Similarly, television networks like MTV and CNN are received in many countries and are contributing to the development of a sort of global culture that transcends national borders.
11 The Changing Demographics Of The Global Economy There has been a drastic change in the demographics of the world economy in the last 30 yearsFour trends are important:the Changing World Output and World Trade Picturethe Changing Foreign Direct Investment Picturethe Changing Nature of the Multinational Enterprisethe Changing World OrderLet’s move on to look at how the demographics of the global economy have changed over the last 30 years.There are four trends that are particularly important: the changing world output and world trade picture, the changing foreign direct investment picture, the changing nature of the multinational enterprise, and the changing world order.Let’s look at each one.
12 How Has World Output And World Trade Changed? In 1960, the United States accounted for over 40% of world economic activityBy 2008, the United States accounted for just over 20% of world economic activityA similar trend occurred in other developed countriesThe share of world output accounted for by developing nations is rising and is expected to account for more than 60% of world economic activity by 2020The first trend is the change in world output and world trade.In the 1960s, the U.S. dominated the world economy and world trade picture. U.S. multinational companies were powerful, and because of the Cold War, a significant portion of the world was off limits to the Western companies.Today, this picture has changed. In 2008, the U.S. accounted for only about 20 percent of world economic activity. Other developed countries saw their share of global economic activity decline over time as well.Developing nations saw just the opposite trend—their share of world output is rising, and by 2020, it’s expected that they’ll account for more than 60 percent of world economic activity.So, countries like China, Thailand, and Indonesia have emerged as global economic players.Most experts expect that similar trends will continue. Countries like the U.S., the U.K., Germany, and Japan that were among the first to industrialize, will continue to see their standings in world exports and world output slip, while developing nations like China, India, South Korea, and Thailand see their economies and role in global trade and investment increase.
13 How Has World Output And World Trade Changed? The Changing Demographics of World GDP and TradeAs you can see, the U.S., despite its decline, is still the world’s largest exporter. However, China has emerged to challenge the U.S. for this position.
14 How Has Foreign Direct Investment Changed Over Time? In the 1960s, U.S. firms accounted for about two-thirds of worldwide FDI flowsToday, the United States accounts for less than one-fifth of worldwide FDI flowsOther developed countries have followed a similar patternIn contrast, the share of FDI accounted for by developing countries has risenDeveloping countries, especially China, have also become popular destinations for FDIA similar trend is taking place with regard to foreign direct investment. In the 1960s, the U.S. accounted for over 66 percent of worldwide foreign direct investment flows.Britain was a distant second with just 10 percent of worldwide investment flows.Today, investments by developing nations are on the rise, while the stock, or total cumulative value, of foreign investments by rich industrial countries is falling.As you might expect from our earlier discussion, developing nations like China have also become important destinations for foreign direct investment flows. My Dollarstore for example, has been able to take advantage of the emerging middle class in India. The company opened its first store in Mumbai in 2004, and hasn’t looked back since. The company is modeled after its American stores and sells a variety of American products including Pop Tarts and Doritos for 99 rupees. Now, its bigger rivals like Wal-Mart and France’s Carrefour are eying the market!
15 How Has Foreign Direct Investment Changed Over Time? Percentage Share of Total FDI StockFigure 1.2 shows that the stock of foreign direct investment by the world’s six most important sources has changed significantly from 1980 to In particular, notice the decline by the U.S., and the increase by France, and the world’s developing countries.
16 How Has Foreign Direct Investment Changed Over Time? FDI InflowsIn Figure 1.3, you can see the growth in cross-border flows of foreign direct investment and also the importance of developing nations as destinations for investment. These two trends reflect the internationalization of companies that we have discussed.
17 What Is A Multinational Enterprise? A multinational enterprise (MNE) is any business that has productive activities in two or more countriesSince the 1960s, there has been a rise in non-U.S. multinationals, and a growth of mini-multinationalsThe global economy has also shifted in terms of the type of companies that are involved.A multinational enterprise as any business that has productive activities in two or more countries.Since the 1960s, two important trends have emerged. First, we’ve seen an increase in the number of non-U.S. multinationals.Multinational firms from France, Germany, Britain, and Japan have become more important, and there has been a notable decline in the role of U.S. firms. Firms from developing countries such as China and South Korea have also emerged as important players. So, in addition to thinking of American companies like Ford and Microsoft, we now think of South Korea’s Samsung and Hong Kong’s Hutchison Whampoa.The second trend is the growth in the number of mini-multinationals. China’s Lenovo for example, acquired IBM’s PC division in 2004, in an effort to become a global player in the PC industry, and moved its headquarters to the U.S. as part of its strategy.Traditionally, global markets have been the venue for large firms, but today, thanks to advances in technology like the Internet, international sales can account for a significant share of revenues for small companies, too.
18 The Changing World Order Many former Communist nations in Europe and Asia are now committed to democratic politics and free market economiesso, there are new opportunities for international businessesbut, there are signs of growing unrest and totalitarian tendencies in some countries like RussiaChina and Latin America are also moving toward greater free market reformsbetween 1983 and 2008, FDI in China increased from less than $2 billion to $90 billion annuallybut, China also has many new strong companies that could threaten Western firmsThe final change in demographics is the change in world order.The collapse of communism has brought about new opportunities in Eastern Europe, and China’s economic development and enormous population presents huge opportunities for companies.Mexico and Latin America have also emerged both as new markets, and as source and production locations.Keep in mind though, that while the growth of these markets creates new opportunities for firms, the growth is also a threat. China, for example, is now home to a number of companies like Hisense that could become significant players in their global industries. To learn more about Hisense, see the Management Focus: China’s Hisense – An Emerging Multinational in your text.
19 How Will The Global Economy Of The 21st Century Look? The world is moving toward a more global economic system…But globalization is not inevitablethere are signs of a retreat from liberal economic ideology in RussiaGlobalization brings risksthe financial crisis that swept through South East Asia in the late 1990sthe recent financial crisis that started in the U.S. in 2008, and moved around the worldWhat will the global economy look like in the twenty-first century?Well, as we’ve discussed, the world is moving toward a more global economic system.Keep in mind though, that this interdependency creates new types of risk like the financial crisis that swept through South East Asia in the late 1990s, and the more recent financial crisis that began in the United States in 2008, and then affected economies across the globe.
20 Is An Interdependent Global Economy A Good Thing? Supporters believe that increased trade and cross-border investment meanlower prices for goods and servicesgreater economic growthhigher consumer income, and more jobsCritics worry that globalization will causejob lossesenvironmental degradationthe cultural imperialism of global media and MNEsAnti-globalization protesters now regularly show up at most major meetings of global institutionsWe’ve been talking so far, about the benefits of globalization, but some people worry that the shift toward a more integrated and interdependent global economy isn’t necessarily a good thing.Critics worry for example, that globalization will cause job losses, damage the environment, and create cultural imperialism.Supporters however, argue that globalization means lower prices, more economic growth, and more jobs.Anti-globalization protesters who fear that globalization is forever changing the world in a negative way now turn up at almost every major meeting of global institutions like the WTO and IMF.In some cases, for example in Seattle in 1999, and France in 1999, the protests have been violent.You can learn more about what occurred in France in the Country Focus in your text. Let’s talk about some of the protesters’ concerns.
21 How Does Globalization Affect Jobs And Income? Critics argue that falling barriers to trade are destroying manufacturing jobs in advanced countriesSupporters contend that the benefits of this trend outweigh the costscountries will specialize in what they do most efficiently and trade for other goods—and all countries will benefitHow do critics and supporters view globalization and jobs and income?Critics of globalization worry that jobs are being lost to low-wage nations.They argue that falling trade barriers are allowing companies to move manufacturing jobs to countries where wage rates are low.For example, clothing manufacturing has increasingly shifted away from developed nations, such as the U.S., where workers might earn $9 per hour to countries like Honduras where wages are less than 50 cents per hour.Critics, particularly those in the U.S. believe that this leads to falling wages and living standards in these countries.Supporters however, claim that free trade will prompt countries to specialize in what they can produce most efficiently, and to import everything else.They argue that the whole economy will be better off as a result. In other words, if you can buy an imported shirt that was made for pennies in Honduras, you’ll have more money to spend on products the U.S. can produce efficiently like computers and software.
22 How Does Globalization Affect Labor Policies And The Environment? Critics argue that firms avoid costly efforts to adhere to labor and environmental regulations by moving production to countries where such regulations do not exist, or are not enforcedSupporters claim that tougher environmental and labor standards are associated with economic progressas countries get richer from free trade, they implement tougher environmental and labor regulationsHow do globalization’s supporters and critics view globalization and labor policies and the environment?Protesters fear that free trade encourages firms from advanced nations, where there are costly environmental standards, to move manufacturing facilities offshore to less developed countries with lax environmental and labor regulations.However, advocates of globalization claim that environmental regulation and stricter labor standards go hand in hand with economic progress, so foreign direct investment actually encourages countries to raise their standards.Studies support this claim with the exception of carbon dioxide emissions which appear to rise along with income levels.Advocates of globalization argue that by tying free trade agreements to the implementation of tougher environmental and labor laws, economic growth and globalization can occur together with a decrease in environmental pollution.
23 How Does Globalization Affect National Sovereignty? Is today’s interdependent global economy shifting economic power away from national governments toward supranational organizations like the WTO, the EU, and the UN?Critics argue that unelected bureaucrats have the power to impose policies on the democratically elected governments of nation-statesSupporters claim that the power of these organizations is limited to what nation-states agree to grantthe power of the organizations lies in their ability to get countries to agree to follow certain actionsA third concern raised by critics of globalization is the worry that economic power is shifting away from national governments and towards supranational organizations like the WTO and the European Union, or EU.However, globalization’s supporters argue that the power of these organizations is limited to what they are granted by their members. They also point out that the organizations are designed to promote the collective interests of members, and they won’t gain support for policies that don’t achieve this goal.
24 How Is Globalization Affecting The World’s Poor? Is the gap between rich nations and poor nations is getting wider?Critics believe that if globalization was beneficial there should not be a divergence between rich and poor nationsSupporters claim that the best way for the poor nations to improve their situation is toreduce barriers to trade and investmentimplement economic policies based on free market economiesreceive debt forgiveness for debts incurred under totalitarian regimesFinally, critics of globalization worry that the gap between rich and poor is growing and that the benefits of globalization haven’t been shared equally.While supporters of globalization concede the gap between rich and poor has gotten wider, they also contend that it has more to do with the policies countries have followed than with globalization.For example, many countries have chosen to pursue totalitarian regimes, or have failed to contain population growth, and many countries have huge debt loads that are stagnating economic growth.
25 How Does The Global Marketplace Affect Managers? Managing an international business differs from managing a domestic business becausecountries are differentthe range of problems confronted in an international business is wider and the problems more complex than those in a domestic businessfirms have to find ways to work within the limits imposed by government intervention in the international trade and investment systeminternational transactions involve converting money into different currenciesWhat does all of this mean for companies?Well, it means that managing an international business, or any firm that engages in international trade or investment, will be different from managing a domestic business for several key reasons.First, countries differ.Second, the range of problems faced by mangers is greater and more complex.Third, government intervention in markets creates limitations for companies, as does the global trading system.Finally, firms must deal with exchange rate changes when they conduct international transactions that require converting funds to other currencies.
26 Review Question The shift toward a more integrated and interdependent world economy is referred toasa) economic integrationb) economic interdependencyc) globalizationd) internationalizationNow, let’s see how well you understand the material in this chapter. I’ll ask you a few questions. See if you can get them right. Ready?The shift toward a more integrated and interdependent world economy is referred to asa) economic integrationb) economic interdependencyc) globalizationd) internationalizationThe correct answer is c.
27 Review Question The merging of historically distinct and separate national markets into one hugeglobal marketplace is known asa) global market facilitationb) cross-border tradec) supranational market integrationd) the globalization of marketsThe merging of historically distinct and separate national markets into one huge global marketplace is known asa) global market facilitationb) cross-border tradec) supranational market integrationd) the globalization of marketsThe correct answer is d.
28 Review Question Firms that are involved in international business tend to bea) largeb) smallc) medium-sizedd) large, small, and medium-sizedFirms that are involved in international business tend to bea) largeb) smallc) medium-sizedd) large, small, and medium-sizedThe correct answer is d.
29 Review Question Which is not a factor of production? a) trade b) land c) capitald) energyWhich is not a factor of production?a) tradeb) landc) capitald) energyThe correct answer is a.
30 Review Question The sourcing of good and services from around the world to take advantage of nationaldifferences in the cost and quality of factors ofproduction is calleda) economies of scaleb) the globalization of productionc) global integrationd) global sourcingThe sourcing of good and services from around the world to take advantage of national differences in the cost and quality of factors of production is calleda) economies of scaleb) the globalization of productionc) global integrationd) global sourcingThe correct answer is b.
31 Review Question Which organization is responsible for policing the world trading system?a) the International Monetary Fundb) the United Nationsc) the World Trade Organizationd) the World BankWhich organization is responsible for policing the world trading system?a) the International Monetary Fundb) the United Nationsc) the World Trade Organizationd) the World BankThe correct answer is c.
32 Review Question What is the single most important innovation to the globalization of markets andproduction?a) advances in transportation technologyb) the development of the microprocessorc) advances in communicationd) the InternetWhat is the single most important innovation to the globalization of markets and production?a) advances in transportation technologyb) the development of the microprocessorc) advances in communicationd) the InternetThe correct answer is b.
33 Review Question Which of the following trends is true? a) the United States is accounting for a greater percentage of world trade than ever beforeb) the United States is accounting for a greater percentage of foreign direct investment than ever beforec) the share of world trade accounted for by developing countries is risingd) the share of foreign direct investment by developing countries is decliningWhich of the following trends is true?a) the United States is accounting for a greater percentage of world trade than ever beforeb) the United States is accounting for a greater percentage of foreign direct investment than ever beforec) the share of world trade accounted for by developing countries is risingd) the share of foreign direct investment by developing countries is decliningThe correct answer is c.
34 Review Question Which of these is not a concern of anti-globalization protesters?a) globalization raises consumer incomeb) globalization contributes to environmental degradationc) globalization is causing a loss of manufacturing jobs in developing countriesd) globalization implies a loss of national sovereigntyWhich of these is not a concern of anti-globalization protesters?a) globalization raises consumer incomeb) globalization contributes to environmental degradationc) globalization is causing a loss of manufacturing jobs in developing countriesd) globalization implies a loss of national sovereigntyThe correct answer is a.