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Economic Interdependence in the Middle East The Importance of Oil.

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1 Economic Interdependence in the Middle East The Importance of Oil

2 Early Civilizations Early civilizations in the region included the Sumerians, the Babylonians, the Hittites, the Israelites, and the Phoenicians. Later empires, such as the Persian and Byzantine, added new cultural elements to the already multicultural civilization of the Middle East.

3 The Fall of the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire unified huge territories and endured for over 600 years. The defeat of the Central powers in World War I effectively ended the Ottoman Empire and led to numerous movements for self determination in the region. Many of the conflicts which followed were products of colonialism, nationalism, the international oil economy, and political ambitions.

4 Religion Religious changes in the Middle East have greatly impacted the internal and external affairs of countries as well as the lives of individuals. Issues affecting individual lives include internal reform movements in Islam and Judaism, the changing role of women, changing social customs and the impact of Western influence.

5 Oil Gets Important For most of the 20th century, groups within the Middle East have been seeking self-rule and national identity. As oil has increased in importance, so has the influence of the Middle East on the world. These oil-rich countries’ economies have changed and caused the oil-rich nations to raise the standard of living of their peoples.

6 Other Economic Activities agriculture tourism and local industries.

7 Modernization Because of modernization and rapid growth in population, many Middle Eastern cities such as DUBAI have grown a lot! Modernization has created many problems in terms of housing and jobs along with other social issues.

8 Extra! Extra! Credit Google and Print Images of the city of Dubai to share with the class tomorrow. The images must represent how the city of Dubai is Modernized

9 Expanding Economies Some people in the Middle Eastern countries have found ways to make the most of their resources in various geographic regions to help improve and develop their economy on the basis of their cultural heritage and economic needs. However, there are some other Middle Eastern countries who have learned to expand their economies. An example is Bahrain, which, through shipping and banking serves as a hub for Southwest Asia.

10 What Does the Middle East Have that EVERYONE Needs??? The Middle East has oil that other nations need, so relationships between countries have to be good. They must cooperate.

11 What Would You Do? (Left Hand Assignment) If you learned today that the Middle East decided to stop its shipment of oil to the United States? What alternative ways to create or save energy would you enforce? Do you think this could actually happen?

12 Interdependence The economic, political, and social dependence of culture regions on one another

13 Scarcity The condition of not being able to have all of the goods and services one wants. Resources do not exist in sufficient quantities to satisfy all desires to use them

14 Embargo Book Definition: An embargo is a government order that prohibits a country to trade with other countries. My definition: (describe Embargo in your own words)

15 Scarcity of Gas The Oil Embargo of 1974 led to a scarcity of gas in the United States

16 Oil Prices Rose

17 Causes and effects of OPEC Trade Embargo (Left Hand Assignment) Causes Why did this event happen? What caused this event to occur? What actions led up to this event? Effects What happened as a result? What happened AFTER… How did things change after the event

18 Nixon’s Plan (view only, do not copy ) He called upon homeowners to turn down their thermostats He asked companies to trim work hours. Gas stations were asked to hold their sales to a max of ten gallons per customer. In the month of November 1973, Nixon proposed an extension of Daylight Savings Time Placed a total ban on the sale of gasoline on Sunday's. Trans-Alaskan oil pipeline, designed to supply 2,000,000 barrels of oil a day.

19 Modernization Left Hand Assignment: Create an ILLUSTRATED Bubble Map

20 Modernization Growing City New Traffic Costly & Fancy Buildings Skyscrapers High -Tech Inventions/Innovations DUBAI

21 Scarcity Little Resources Not Enough No More Ration Gone Empty People Need Limited 4 th Block

22 Scarcity Little Limited Less Rare Out of None Not Having Run Out 2 nd Block

23 Scarcity Need More Not Enough Rare Bankrupt Going Without Very Little All Gone Minute 1 st Block

24 Economic Report Write a report to the United Nations that addresses : the region’s current economy international trade economic interdependence and the impact of political and cultural boundaries.

25 Economic Report Introduction: Middle East’s economic development current economy Show a good grasp of the complexities of the region’s economy and explains it clearly. Write in organized paragraphs

26 Economic Report Information on specific country: current economy factors that shape the domestic and foreign policies of the society international trade and economic interdependence impact of political and cultural boundaries

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