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Environmental Issues Facing the Middle East

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Issues Facing the Middle East"— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Issues Facing the Middle East
Water Pollution Water Rights Oil Pollution

2 Southwest Asia (The Middle East) Terms to Know – Part I
Scarcity – a shortage of a particular resource. Water rights – agreements about how countries can use the water in a region. Water rights often cause political disputes. Agriculture – farming Extraction – the process of removing natural resources from the ground.

3 Southwest Asia (The Middle East) Terms to Know – Part I
Desalinization/desalination – the process of removing salt from sea water to make it suitable for drinking and irrigation. Irrigation – the process by which water is transported from rivers, lakes, or other water supplies, to farms. Market Economy – individuals own resources and determine what products to make and sell. Prices are determined by supply and demand. Command Economy – the government owns all resources and determines what products to make, sell, and the price.

4 Southwest Asia (The Middle East) Terms to Know – Part I
Mixed Economy – individuals and government make economic decisions. Service Industry – an industry that provides a service to people rather than producing goods. OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) – an organization of oil producing countries that work to control the price of oil by controlling the supply of oil. Trade Barriers – anything that restricts or limits trade – physical or political (done by a government).

5 Southwest Asia (The Middle East) Terms to Know – Part I
Embargo – order that completely stops trade. Tariff – a tax added to the price of goods that are imported.

6 NB 43 – Connect w/Terms Directions: Copy this onto NB p.43 and use your terms from p.42 to fill in the blanks. 1. OPEC extracts _____ in order to sell it to other countries. 2. When OPEC sells _____ (the resource they control), the money is used to build desalinization plants which are used to make fresh water for drinking and __________ (water for _______, which is another word for farming). 3. Sometimes selling _____ is difficult for OPEC due to ____________ barriers that are created by governments, like: _____________ - stops trade _____________ - taxes on imported goods.

7 Slotted Notes (NB p. 46) Water
There is little fresh water in the Middle East. Most water is not suitable to drink. Many countries use desalination to get fresh water. Desalination: Process of removing salt from salt water.

8 Water Pollution Many cities are located along rivers for water supply.
These cities have industries which pollute the water Because a lot of oil is shipped out of the M.E., there are many oil spills which pollute the water.

9 Water Rights Many countries get into disputes over water rights.
Water rights: Agreements about how countries can use water in a region. Water is scarce and many countries depend on the same source of water for living. Many countries get into disputes over water rights.


11 Oil Oil is the largest natural resource in the M.E.
People get oil through extraction. Extraction: process of removing a natural resource from the ground.

12 Oil Pollution Oil is drilled out of the ground with machinery. Machinery and refining oil causes pollution. Pollution from the oil industries has endangered the environment and the water supply in the M.E.

13 Economic Systems of Key Countries
1. Israel: Mixed Economy Government & private companies control the economy. Has High-tech Equipment and Diamond cutting Service industries accounts for half of the Economy. (Insurance, Banking, tourism).

14 2. Saudi Arabia Mixed Economy Main export: Oil
A leader in OPEC that attempts to control the price of oil by controlling the supply of oil. Embargo – political trade barrier that stops trade between two countries Oil accounts for half of its economy. Sale of OIL helps to raise standard of living for its people: Education, defense, health, housing, and transportation!!!

15 3. Turkey Similar to a command economy because the government controls much of the economy. (Not a complete command economy though.) Farming is large part of the economy. Major industries: Clothing & textiles Service industry is half of Turkey’s economy. Aydin Dogan (entrepreneur who controls largest gas & oil company in Turkey). Aydin Dogan

16 Economic Growth 1. ISRAEL:
War & immigrants hinder Israel’s economic growth. Government has taken control of certain economic activities to help growth. Government controls most activities of agriculture. This helps because there are few natural resources.

17 3. Turkey After WWI Turkey invested money in weapons and steel.
Government now gives private businesses more control. Entrepreneurs are important to Turkey’s economy.

18 2. Saudi Arabia Making their economy more diverse by Investing in more than just oil. 1976: The Saudi Basic Industries Corporation created. Country began to invest in capital goods like; steel, plastics, industrial gases, and petrochemicals.

19 Connect w/Notes NB p. 47 *In the Middle East (SW Asia) _______ is scarce, but ________ is abundant (large amount). *Identify ways in which the extraction and sale of OIL is both a positive and a negative thing for SW Asia. – Think in terms of economics and environment. Positive Negative

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