Presentation on theme: "Cleavages and Politics, Civil Society, and Social Capital."— Presentation transcript:
Cleavages and Politics, Civil Society, and Social Capital
Cleavages Cleavages are divisions between groups within a polity Cleavages are social, cultural, and political divisions Usually more than one cleavage exists in a society
Social Cleavages The social aspect of cleavages includes classes, religious groups, ethnicities, linguistic populations, castes, age cohorts, gender, and economics
Cultural Cleavages Cultural cleavages are the identity of social groups Sets of values and beliefs Self-consciousness Social relationships
Political Cleavages The organization of social groups Trade unions Interest groups Political parties When social groups are organized for political action, they become cleavages
Civil Society Individuals and organizations in a society which are independent of government “Third sector” of society
Civil Society Much of politics is affected by the extent and nature of citizen organization, independent of the state Civil societies are known as non- governmental organizations
Examples of Civil Society Volunteering is a form of civil society Trade unions are also a type of civil society
Social Capital The networks of relationships among people who live and work in a particular society, enabling that society to function effectively
Categories Social Capital can be broken down into 3 main groups: Bonds Bridges Linkages
Bonds Links to people based on a sense of common identity Family Close friends People who share our culture or ethnicity
Bridges Bridges- links that stretch beyond a shared sense of identity Distant friends Colleagues Associates
Linkages Linkages- links to people further up or lower down on the social ladder
Media The media has immense power within the American democracy. The media reports the news, serves as an intermediary between the government and the people, helps determine which issues should be discussed, and keeps people actively involved in society and politics. Just about all Americans get their news from the media rather than from other people or other sources.
Reporting the News One of the main focal points of the media is to report the news. A majority of Americans get their current information from the news, so the media is essentially an indispensable part of politics. Media coverage perceives the way the world is viewed in the eyes of the people who get their information from it. A world without the media in politics is almost unimaginable.
Media Effects Many politicians often complain of bias in the media, usually a liberal bias against the views of conservative politicians in today world. They complain that the media’s ability to decide which stories to report often reflects its devotion. The media also provides a public forum for debates between political leaders. During campaigns, opposing candidates often broadcast advertisements and debate with each other on television.
Citizens and Representation Citizens participate in politics in a variety of ways. A signiﬁcant form of political behavior in most societies is political participation. Participation takes both individual and group forms. Citizens gather in massive groups as a way to show that they support a particular idea or agenda, in hopes that they will influence the political process.
Citizens Effects on Government Citizens will sometimes form in strikes to show the government that they disagree with something that was established. Citizens in the United States definitely take advantage of their freedom of speech by expressing their thoughts and beliefs publically. There is no better way for a citizen to express their personal beliefs on a government than to do it through the media. Citizens may also write their Representative or Senator, or work for a candidate or political party.
What is a citizen? a native or naturalized member of a state or nation who owes allegiance to its government and is entitled to its protection
How do citizens participate in government? POLITICAL PARTICIPATION Political participation is how citizens try to influence their government. Some examples of political participation are: Voting Protests Petitions
Political participation can be Voluntary of free will: arising, acting, or resulting from somebody's own choice or decision rather than because of external pressure or force Coerced Force or the power to use force in gaining compliance as by government or police forced
Examples In North Korea, there are weekly meetings celebrating the North Korean leader and his control North Koreans that do not attend often “disappear”
Regime support Rebellion Peaceful Protest Continuum of Political Participation
Regime Support Citizens in North Korea being forced to support the regime Peaceful Protest Americans protesting a new bill Rebellion Egypt’s overthrow of the government
Individual or Group? Participation can be either individual or group Group participation can take form in social movements, interest groups, political parties, etc.
What is representation? Action on behalf of a person or group of people Government representatives can be elected in a democracy Example: the United States is a representative democracy
Representation comes in different forms GREAT BRITAIN In Great Britain, the Prime Minister is the leader of the party that has the majority in the House of Commons “First-past-the-post” principle majority vote isn’t required Representative is chosen by plurality proportional representation is not required either
Proportional Representation Seats are allocated roughly in proportion to the votes received by each party Vote more for the party than the candidate Example: Germany
Representation comes in different forms IRAN In Iran, the Guardian Council has power to approve or disapprove electoral candidates
What is a social movement? “Loosely organized but sustained campaign in support of a social goal, typically either the implementation or the prevention of a change in society's structure or values. Although social movements differ in size, they are all essentially collective. That is, they result from the more or less spontaneous coming together of people whose relationships are not defined by rules and procedures but who merely share a common outlook on society.” A group of people coming together for a social cause in hopes of improving society. These people come together voluntarily and are a product of shared beliefs.
Antiglobalization Protecting culture, language, way of life Against groups like the WTO, World Bank, etc.
Civil Rights Equality for women, equality for races/ ethnic groups, right to vote, right for legal representation, etc.
Environmental Movement Conservation Green politics No GMO’s, pro-organic, ban of DDT, etc.