Summary Condensed In your own words Concise, but not telegraphic
Paraphrase Not condensed In your own words Most useful method of incorporating source material Also a useful study aid
Quotation Exact words. Any additions or deletions must be indicated with [brackets] or ellipses: ... indicates less than a full sentence has been deleted .... indicates that one or more full sentences have been deleted Errors in the original are left intact and indicated by [ sic ]
When to Quote To add the power of an author’s words to support your argument To disagree with an author’s argument To highlight particularly eloquent or powerful phrases or passages To compare and contrast specific points of view To note the important research that precedes your own
When to Summarize To establish background or offer an overview of a topic To describe knowledge (from several sources) about a topic To determine the main ideas of a single source
When to Paraphrase To clarify a short passage from a text To avoid overusing quotations To explain a point when exact wording isn’t important To explain the main points of a passage To report numerical data or statistics (preferred in APA papers)
Prefer Paraphrase In most situation, paraphrase will be the most effective option. Paraphrase uses your own words, so it blends well into the text. Paraphrase creates an better understanding of the source material
Paraphrase Practice Using the information on pages 44 & 45, define the idea of a “Coasean ceiling” and a “Coasean floor” by paraphrasing Shirky. A “Coasean ceiling” is...
Summary Practice The final paragraph on page 51, and the subsequent paragraph on page 52 offer details on Garrett Hardin’s “Tragedy of the Commons.” Summarize these two paragraphs in 50 words or less.