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 Prof. Dr. M. H. Assal Introduction to Computer AS 15/10/2014.

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Presentation on theme: " Prof. Dr. M. H. Assal Introduction to Computer AS 15/10/2014."— Presentation transcript:

1  Prof. Dr. M. H. Assal Introduction to Computer AS 15/10/2014

2  A computer is an electronic device used to process data.  A computer can convert data into information that is useful to people.  A complete computer system includes four distinct parts (The Parts of Computer System): o Hardware o Software o Data o User Introduction to Computer2

3  Hardware  Software  Data  Users Introduction to Computer3

4 4

5  A computer's hardware consists of electronic devices; The parts you can see and touch. 1. Speakers 2. Modem 3. Microphone 4. RAM 5. CPU 6. Keyboard 7. Mouse 8. CD-ROM drive 9. Diskette drive 10. Hard drive 11. Printer 12. Ports 13. Monitor 14. Expansion board Introduction to Computer5

6  Software – also called programs – consists of organized sets of instructions for controlling the computer.  Some programs exist for the computer's use, to help it manage its own tasks and devices.  Other programs exist for the user, and enable the computer to perform tasks for you, such as creating documents. Introduction to Computer6

7  Data consists of raw facts, which the computer can manipulate and process (or convert) into information that is useful to people.  People are the computer's operators, or users. Introduction to Computer7

8  Types of Hardware  The CPU  Memory  How Memory is Measured  Input and Output Devices  Storage Devices Introduction to Computer8

9  A computer's hardware devices are categorized as follows: o Processor o Memory o Input and output (I/O) devices o Storage devices Introduction to Computer 9

10 10  The processor is also called the central processing unit (CPU). It manages all devices and performs the actual processing of data.

11  Memory consists of chips attached to the motherboard.  Memory holds data and program instructions as the CPU works with them. This memory is called Random Access Memory (RAM). Introduction to Computer11

12  Input devices accept data and instructions from the user or from another computer system. The keyboard and mouse are examples of input devices.  Output devices return processed data back to the user or to another computer system. The printer and monitor are examples. Introduction to Computer12

13  Storage devices hold data not currently being used by the CPU. Data is commonly stored on a magnetic or optical disk. Each type uses a special medium for storing data on its surface. Introduction to Computer13

14 Introduction to Computer14 SizeAbbreviations 0 or 1Bit 8 bitByte (B) 1024 BKilobyte (KB) 1024 KBMegabyte (MB) 1024 MBGigabyte (GB) 1024 GBTerabyte (TB)

15 Introduction to Computer15

16 DecimalHexadecimalBinary 000000 110001 220010 330011 440100 550101 660110 770111 881000 991001 10A1010 11B1011 12C1100 13D1101 14E1110 15F1111 Introduction to Computer16

17  Computers can be classified in many ways. The common classification is by size and by function.  By Size o Supercomputers o Mainframe o Minicomputers o Microcomputers Introduction to Computer17

18  Supercomputers are the most powerful computers. They are used for problems requiring complex calculations.  Because of their size and expense, supercomputers are relatively rare.  Supercomputers are used by: Universities, Government agencies and Large businesses Introduction to Computer18

19  Mainframe computers can support hundreds or thousands of users, handling massive amounts of input, output, and storage.  Mainframe computers are used in large organizations where many users need access to shared data and programs.  Mainframes are also used as e-commerce servers, handling transactions over the Internet. Introduction to Computer19

20 Introduction to Computer20

21  Minicomputers are smaller than mainframes but larger than microcomputers.  Minicomputers usually have multiple terminals.  Minicomputers may be used as network servers and Internet servers. Introduction to Computer21

22  Microcomputers are more commonly known as personal computers. The term "PC" is applied to IBM-PCs or compatible computers.  Full-size desktop computers are the most common type of PC.  Notebook (laptop) computers are used by people who need the power of a desktop system, but also portability.  Handheld PCs (such as PDAs) lack the power of a desktop or notebook PC, but offer features for users who need limited functions and small size. Introduction to Computer22

23  By Function o Server o Workstations o Embedded Computers Introduction to Computer23

24  Server usually refers to a computer that is dedicated to provide a service. For example, a computer dedicated to a database may be called a "database server". Introduction to Computer24

25  Workstations are powerful single-user computers.  Workstations are used for tasks that require a great deal of number-crunching power, such as product design and computer animation.  Workstations are often used as network and Internet servers. Introduction to Computer25

26  Embedded computers are computers that are a part of a machine or device. Embedded computers generally execute a program that is stored in non-volatile memory and is only intended to operate a specific machine or device. Introduction to Computer26

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