3 The kidneyUrea is a waste product.Excretion is the removal from the body of waste products of metabolism
4 ExcretionUrea is a waste product from the metabolism of amino acids. Each amino acid must be deaminated (lose an amine group).It is the job of the kidneys to filter and cleanse the bloodstream of molecules like urea and other molecular wates.
6 11.3.2 Draw and label the structures of the kidney
7 Excretory System filters blood and produces urine.
8 The Kidney Renal artery – takes blood into the kidney Renal vein – blood drains out of the kidneyRenal pelvis – area where urine collectsUreter – takes urine to bladderRenal medulla – surrounds renal pelvis
9 Annotate a diagram of a glomerulus and associated nephron to show the the function of each part.
11 Nephron Kidneys made up of 1.25 million nephrons Nephron = filtering unitCapillary bed = glomerulusBowman’s capsule = surrounds glomerulusProximal convoluted tubuleLoop of HenleDistal convoluted tubule
12 Explain the process of ultrafiltration, including blood pressure, fenestrated blood capillaries and basement membrane
13 The kidney is the blood’s filtration and balancing system
18 Explain the process of ultrafiltration. (8 marks)
19 Explain the process of ultrafiltration. (8 marks)
20 11.3.5 Explain osmoregulation Osmoregulation is the control of the water balance of the blood, tissue or cytoplasm of a living organism
21 Osmoregulation Depends on: Total volume of water ingested recently as liquid & in solid foodsPerspiration rate (exercise level & environmental temperature)Ventilation rate (breathing rate is largely dependent on exercise level
22 Explain the reabsorption of glucose, water and salts in the proximal convoluted tubule, including the roles of microvilli, osmosis and active transport.
23 Selective Reabsorption Filtrate leaving Bowman’s capsule contain substances body needsWater, salt ions, glucoseOccurs in the proximal convoluted tubuleReturned to bloodstream in peritubular capillary bed
24 Selective Reabsorption Walls of the prox. conv. tubule is one cell thick
39 Explain the differences in the concentration of proteins, glucose and urea between blood plasma, glomerular filtrate and urine
40 Tables don’t have to be memorized Tables don’t have to be memorized Fluids mentioned associated with the following locations.Glomerular filtrate = fluid (now called filtrate) which enters into the proximal convoluted tubule after the ultrafiltration process within Bowman’s capsule. No reabsorption has occurred.Blood Plasma = blood that enters the glomerulus originally from the renal artery & no filtering or reabsorption has yet occurredUrine = fluid which was the filtrate that has now undergone reabsorption & osmoregulation mechanisms & is taken to the bladder
41 Which nutrients are 100% reabsorbed? Glucose and amino acidsWhere does this happen?selective reabsorption in the proximal convuluted tubule
42 What is filtered, reclaimed and excreted by the kidney? The concentration of uric acid is 12.5x greater in the urine than in the filtrate or the blood.How much more concentrated is urea in the urine than in the blood?Why is such a large proportion of urea and uric acid excreted?They are very toxic
43 What is filtered, reclaimed and excreted by the kidney? What percentage of the following are forced into the nephron by ultrafiltration?urea –glucose –inorganic salts -proteins & macromolecules -100%100%Too large for ultrafiltration100%0%Why the macromolecule result?
44 Are there any other components not processed by ultrafiltration? ErythrocytesLymphocytesplatelets
45 11.3.9 Explain the presence of glucose in the urine of untreated diabetic patients.
46 Diabetes and the Kidney Type I : insulin not producedLiver does not take up glucose from bloodType II: insulin receptors inactive- Liver does not take up glucose from bloodResults: Blood sugar concentration remains high