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Chapter 11 MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY© Prentice Hall, 2002 11-1
Learning Objectives You should learn to:Explain the barriers to effective interpersonal communication and how to overcome them Contrast the different organizational communication flows and networks Describe two developments in information technology that have had a significant impact on managerial communication Discuss how information technology affects organizations 11-2 © Prentice Hall, 2002
Learning Objectives (cont.)You should learn to: Define communication Explain the interpersonal communication process Describe the factors on which the different communication methods can be evaluated, and on what the choice of communication method depends Tell how nonverbal communication affects managers © Prentice Hall, 2002 11-3
Understanding Managerial CommunicationWhat is Communication? The transfer and understanding of meaning if no information has been conveyed, communication has not occurred everything that a manager does involves communicating effective communication does not equal agreement ineffective communication is the basis for many managerial problems interpersonal communication - occurs between people organizational communication - all the patterns, networks, and systems of communication in an organization © Prentice Hall, 2002 11-4
Process Of Interpersonal CommunicationElements of the Process message - expresses the purpose of the communication encoding - converting the message in symbolic form affected by the skills, attitudes, and knowledge of the sender, and by the culture of the organization channel - medium for conveying the message decoding - retranslating symbols into a message affected by personal characteristics of the receiver noise - disturbances that interfere with the transmission, receipt, or feedback of a message message itself and channel can distort communications feedback also subject to same sources of noise © Prentice Hall, 2002 11-5
The Interpersonal Communication ProcessMessage Medium Receiver Encoding Message Decoding Noise Sender Feedback © Prentice Hall, 2002 11-6
Process Of Interpersonal Communication (cont.)Methods of Communicating Interpersonally a wide variety of communication methods exist choice of a method should reflect: the needs of the sender the needs of the receiver the attributes of the message the attributes of the channel © Prentice Hall, 2002 11-7
Evaluating Communication MethodsFeedback - how quickly can the receiver respond to the message? Complexity capacity - can the method effectively process complex messages? Breadth potential - how many different messages can be transmitted using this method? Confidentiality - can communicators be reasonably sure their messages are received only by those intended? Encoding ease - can sender easily and quickly use this channel? Decoding ease - can receiver easily and quickly decode messages? Time-space constraint - do senders and receivers need to communicate at the same time and in the same space? Cost - how much does it cost to use this method? Interpersonal warmth - how well does this method convey interpersonal warmth? Formality - does this method have the needed amount of formality? Scanability - does this method allow the message to be easily browsed or scanned for relevant information? Time of consumption - does sender or receiver exercise the most control over when the message is dealt with? © Prentice Hall, 2002 11-8
Comparison of Communication Methods© Prentice Hall, 2002 11-9
Process Of Interpersonal Communication (cont.)Methods of Communicating Interpersonally (cont.) nonverbal communication - communication without words types body language - gestures, facial expressions, and other body movements that convey meaning verbal intonation - emphasis someone gives to words or phrases that conveys meaning every oral communication is accompanied by a nonverbal message nonverbal component usually carries the greatest impact © Prentice Hall, 2002 11-10
Facial Expressions Convey Emotions© Prentice Hall, 2002 11-11
Process Of Interpersonal Communication (cont.)Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication Filtering - the deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more favorable to the receiver upward communication is condensed by senders to avoid information overload by top-level receivers extent of filtering affected by: the number of vertical levels in the organization culture of the organization Selective Perception - what people see and hear influenced by their attitudes, background, and experience © Prentice Hall, 2002 11-12
Process Of Interpersonal Communication (cont.)Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication (cont.) Emotions - interpretation of a message affected by the way the receiver feels extreme emotions likely to hinder effective communication Information Overload - information available exceeds processing capacity frequent complaint of executives © Prentice Hall, 2002 11-13
Process Of Interpersonal Communication (cont.)Barriers to Effective Communication (cont.) Defensiveness - behaviors that result from feeling threatened hinders effective communication Language - meaning of words differs among people with diverse backgrounds jargon - specialized terminology used by a group even those who speak the same language may use it quite differently National Culture - cultural values affect the way people communicate individualism versus collectivism © Prentice Hall, 2002 11-14
Process Of Interpersonal Communication (cont.)Overcoming the Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication Use Feedback - ask a set of questions about a message to determine whether it was understood as intended ask receivers to restate the message in their own words Simplify Language - tailor the language to the audience for whom the message is intended jargon can facilitate understanding when used in appropriate groups Listen Actively - listen for full meaning restrain premature judgments or interpretations enhanced by developing empathy with sender © Prentice Hall, 2002 11-15
Active Listening BehaviorsParaphrase Don’t overtalk Be empathetic Make eye contact Exhibit affirmative head nods and appropriate facial expressions Active Listening Avoid distracting actions or gestures Avoid interrupting the speaker Ask questions © Prentice Hall, 2002 11-16
Process Of Interpersonal Communication (cont.)Overcoming Communication Barriers (cont.) Constrain Emotions - emotions severely cloud and distort the transference of meaning refrain from communicating until one regains her/his composure Watch Nonverbal Cues - actions should be aligned with words nonverbal message should reinforce verbal message © Prentice Hall, 2002 11-17
Organizational CommunicationFormal Communication communication that follows the official chain of command or is communication required to do one’s job takes place within prescribed organizational work arrangements Informal Communication not defined by the organization’s structural hierarchy fulfills two purposes permits employees to satisfy their needs for social interaction creates alternative, and frequently faster and more efficient, channels of communication © Prentice Hall, 2002 11-18
Organizational Communication (cont.)Direction of Communication Flow Downward - flows from a manager to subordinates used to inform, direct, coordinate, and evaluate employees Upward - flows from subordinates to managers keeps managers aware of employees’ feelings source for ideas on improving operations amount of upward communication affected by the culture of the organization trust and empowerment increase upward flow mechanistic and authoritarian environment decrease upward flow © Prentice Hall, 2002 11-19
Organizational Communication (cont.)Direction of Communication Flow (cont.) Diagonal - cuts across both work areas and organizational levels benefits efficiency and speed facilitates diagonal communication © Prentice Hall, 2002 11-20
Organizational Communication Networkscombination of vertical and horizontal flows into a variety of patterns Types of Networks chain - communication flows according to the formal chain of command wheel - flows between a clearly identifiable and strong leader and others in a work group or team all-channel - flows freely among all members of a work team no single network is best for all situations © Prentice Hall, 2002 11-21
Three Common Organizations Communication Networks and How They Rate on Effectiveness Criteria© Prentice Hall, 2002 11-22
Organizational Communication (cont.)Organizational Communication Networks (cont.) Grapevine - an informal network that is active in almost every organization important source of information identifies issues that employees consider important and anxiety producing can use the grapevine to disseminate important information grapevine cannot be abolished rumors can never be eliminated entirely © Prentice Hall, 2002 11-23
Understanding Information TechnologyHow Technology Affects Managerial Communication information technology has changed organizational communication disseminates more complete information provides more opportunities for collaboration employees are fully accessible Networked Computer Systems - linking computers through compatible hardware and software - instantaneous transmission of written messages © Prentice Hall, 2002 11-24
Understanding Information Technology (cont.)Effect of Technology (cont.) Networked Computer Systems - (cont.) instant messaging (IM) - interactive real-time communication requires groups to be logged on the computer network at the same time leaves network open to security breaches IM software is currently incompatible with important business applications software voic - digitizes a spoken message transmits message over the network stores the message for later retrieval © Prentice Hall, 2002 11-25
Understanding Information Technology (cont.)Effect of Technology (cont.) Networked Computer Systems (cont.) Fax - allows transmission of documents containing both text and graphics over ordinary telephone lines Electronic data interchange (EDI) - permits the exchange of standard business transaction documents Teleconferencing - permits simultaneous conferral using telephone or group communications software videoconferencing - participants can see each other © Prentice Hall, 2002 11-26
Understanding Information Technology (cont.)Effect of Technology (cont.) Networked Computer Systems (cont.) Intranet - Internet technology that links organizational employees Extranet - Internet technology that links an organization with customers and suppliers Internet-based voice communication - allows users to talk with each other Wireless Capabilities - depends on signals sent through space without any physical connection based on microwave signals, satellites, radio waves, or infrared light rays © Prentice Hall, 2002 11-27
Understanding Information Technology (cont.)How Information Technology Affects Organizations communications among organizational members are no longer constrained by geography or time psychological drawback - personal costs associated with being constantly accessible © Prentice Hall, 2002 11-28
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