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Honors Chemistry Chapter 2

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1 Honors Chemistry Chapter 2
Matter and Change

2 Matter – anything that has mass and takes up space
Mass- amount of matter an object contains Materials – differ in type of matter they are composed of


4 The Properties of Matter
Extensive properties – depend on the amount of matter that is present Example – volume, mass, amount of energy in the substance Intensive properties – do not depend on the amount of matter that is present Example – melting point, boiling point, density

5 Substance – matter that is uniform and has a definite composition
All samples of an identical substance have the identical physical and chemical properties Physical property – quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance’s composition

6 Properties of Matter When a substance undergoes a physical change, its physical appearance changes. Ice melts: a solid is converted into a liquid. Physical changes DO NOT result in a change of composition.

7 Examples of Physical Properties
Color Odor Hardness Density Solubility Melting point, boiling point, freezing point Physical state – solid, liquid, gas

8 Page 40 Table 2.1 Physical properties of some substances

9 States of matter Solid (s) Liquid (l) Gas (g)
Plasma – we don’t deal with

10 Classification of Matter
States of Matter Matter can be a gas, a liquid, or a solid. Gases have no fixed shape or volume. Gases can be compressed to form liquids. Liquids have no shape, but they do have a volume. Solids are rigid and have a definite shape and volume.

11 Gas and vapor not the same
Gas – normally exists that way at room temperature Vapor – gas state of a substance that is normally a liquid or solid at room temperature

12 Physical change A change which alters a material without changing its composition Cutting, grinding, melting, boiling, freezing, dissolving

13 Physical and Chemical Changes

14 Mixtures Physical blend of two or more substances Composition can vary
2 types: Heterogeneous Homogeneous

15 Heterogeneous Mixture
Not uniform in composition Has 2 or more phases Phase – any part of a system with uniform composition and properties Dirt, salad, paper, rocky road ice cream


17 Homogeneous Mixture Has a completely uniform composition
All components are evenly distributed Consists of a single phase Called a SOLUTION

18 Solution – what do you think of?
Can be gas, liquid, or solid!!!!!

19 Separating mixtures Use PHYSICAL methods Magnet, sifting,
Liquid mixtures – distillation Page 47

20 Organic distillation Distillation

21 Substances Can be elements or compounds Element – definition
Compound – 2 or more elements that have been CHEMICALLY combined. Can only be separated by CHEMICAL means

22 Sugar + heat carbon + water
Water + electric current  hydrogen + oxygen

23 Properties of compounds


25 Flow chart – Pg. 50 Elements  represented by symbols Compounds  represented by formulas Pg. 52 Table 2.2

26 Chemical Change A change that produces matter with a different composition than the original matter

27 Properties of Matter When a substance changes its composition, it undergoes a chemical change: When pure hydrogen and pure oxygen react completely, they form pure water.

28 Is iron transforming into rust a physical or chemical change
Does the substance change composition or just change appearance?

29 The color of sulfur is yellow..
Physical Chemical Does the substance change composition or just change appearance?

30 Dynamite explodes to form a mixture of gases
Physical Chemical Does the substance change composition or just change appearance?

31 Aluminum melts at 933 K Physical Chemical
Does the substance change composition or just change appearance?

32 Plants use CO2 to make sugar
Physical Chemical Does the substance change composition or just change appearance?

33 Chemical Reactions One or more substances change into new substances
REACTANT(S)  PRODUCT(S)  means “change into”, “produce”, “yields”

34 Chemical Property The ability of a substance to undergo chemical reactions and to form new substances Rusting, burning, fermenting, exploding, rotting, decomposing Iron and sulfur example

35 Indications that a chemical reaction has occurred
Energy released or absorbed Color change Odor released Production of a gas Irreversibility Production of light

36 Law of Conservation of Mass
During any chemical reaction, the mass of the products is always equal to the mass of the reactants.

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