2 Direct Current (DC)A flow of charge that flows in one direction, even if the current moves in unsteady pulsesA battery produces direct currentElectrons always move through the circuit in the same direction from the negative terminal and toward the positive terminal
7 Alternating Current (AC) Waveform VoltageTimeVoltageTime
8 Alternating Current (AC) Nearly all of the commercial AC circuits in North America involves 120 V and 60 HzEurope adopted 220 V as their standard
9 Alternating Current (AC) The 120 V refers to the “root-mean-square” (RMS) average of the voltage The actual voltage in a 120 V AC circuit varies between V and – 170 V peaks. It delivers the same power as a 120 V DC circuit
10 Alternating Current (AC) Because most electric service in the United States is three-wire: one wire at V, one wire at 0 V (neutral), and the other wire at -120 VMost of the appliance use +120V/-120 V and the neutral wires, producing 120 V. When use both +120V and -120 V wires, a 240 V is produced
14 Thermal Speed vs. Drift Speed Thermal motion (random motion) speed inside a metal wire is about 1/200 the speed of lightUnder electric field, the Drift Speed (net speed) is only about 0.01 cm/s
15 Speed of ElectronsThe electrons will collide with the metallic ions in their path and transfer some kinetic energy to themThe extremely high speed of electricity is not due to the electrons but due to the signal. The signal is traveling at near high speed
16 Speed of ElectronsThe electrons inside the conductor will shift forward (DC) or forward and backward (AC)Why does the electric power company charge you money when they provide you AC electricity which no net electrons enter your home?
17 Speed of ElectronsThe AC outlets in your home do not supply you electrons but supply you energyThe source of the electrons is the conducting circuit material itself
19 Electric PowerThe rate at which electrical energy is converted into another form (mechanical energy, heat, or light) is called electric power(Electric Power) = (Electric Energy) / (Time)Unit: Watts (W)P =Wt
20 Electric Power P = I V P = = V I = I V t = q W Electric Power = Energy / Time= (Charge/Time) x (Energy/Charge)= Current x VoltageUnit: 1 watt = (1 ampere) x (1 volt)P == V I = I VWt=qP = I V
21 Electric PowerDerive the formulas ofP, I, R,P, V, R
22 Electric Power P = I V = I (I R) = I 2 R P = I V = ( ) V = P = I V = I 2 R =V 2R
23 Electric Power W = P t Since Energy / Time = Power, Energy = Power x TimeDerive the formulas ofW, I, V, and tW, I, R, and tW, V, R and tW = P t
24 Electric Power W = P t = I V t = I 2 R t W = P t = I V t = ( ) t = t Since Energy/Time = Power, soEnergy = Power x TimeW = P t = I V t = I 2 R tW = P t = I V t = ( ) t = tV 2RW = Pt = IVt = I2Rt = tV 2R
25 Electric PowerEnergy can be represented in units of kilowatt-hours (kW·h)1 kW·h = 3.6 x 106 JA kilowatt is 1000 watt, and a kilowatt- hour is the energy consumed in 1 hour at the rate of 1 kilowatt
26 Electric Power Example A light bulb is plugged into a 120-volt outlet and has a 0.7 A current in it. What is the power rating of the light bulb?
27 Electric Power Example A light bulb is plugged into a 120-volt outlet and has a 0.7 A current in it. What is the power rating of the light bulb?P = I V= (0.7 A)(120 V)= 84 W
28 Electric Power Example A heater uses 21 A when connected to a 110-V line. If electric power costs 10 cents per kilowatt-hour in this location, what is the cost of running the heater for 13 hours?
29 Electric Power Example A heater uses 21 A when connected to a 110-V line. If electric power costs 10 cents per kilowatt-hour in this location, what is the cost of running the heater for 13 hours?W = I V t= (21 A)(110 V)(13 hr)= W-hr= kW-hrCost = ($ 0.1 /kW-hr)(30.03 kW-hr) = $3.00
30 Electric Power Exercise A 120 V outlet in Tony’s house is wired with a circuit breaker on an 8 A line. a) If Tony tries use his newly-bought 1200-Watt hair dryer, will he trip the circuit breaker? b) What is the resistance of the hair dryer?
31 Electric Power Exercise Alice likes to keep her 40-Watt front porch light on at night time from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m., and Alice pays 8.00¢ per kWh, how much does it cost to run the light for this amount of time each week?