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Chapter 34 Electric Current Voltage is an “electric pressure” that can produce a flow of charge, or current, within a conductor. The flow is restrained by the resistance it encounters. Create by G. Frega

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34.1 Flow of Charge Heat flows through a heat conductor as a result of a difference in temperature. Charge flows through an electric conductor as a result of a potential difference in the ends of the conductor. A potential difference is a difference in electric potential, aka voltage.

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**The flow of heat and the flow of charge will continue until there is no difference.**

When equilibrium is met. When temperature/voltage is the same at both ends of the conductor

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34.2 Electric Current Electric current is simply the flow of electric charge. The SI unit for electric current is amperes (A or amp). An ampere is 1 coulomb per second. The net charge of a conducting wire is normally zero at every moment The # of electrons entering one end is the same as the number leaving the other.

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34.3 Voltage Sources Charges do not flow unless there is a potential difference. A sustained current requires a suitable “electric pump” to provide sustained potential difference. A voltage source provides sustained potential difference, supplying energy to allows charges to move. Ex: Dry cells (batteries), wet cells (car batteries), generators

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**Dry cells and wet cells convert energy released from a chemical reaction into electrical energy.**

Generators convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.

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**Voltage is sometimes referred to as electromotive force, or emf. **

Power utilities use large electric generators to provide 120 volts to home outlets. Current or charges flow through a circuit and voltage is impressed across a circuit. You don’t say that voltage flows through a circuit. Voltage doesn’t go anywhere, for it is the charges that move. Voltage causes current.

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34.4 Electric Resistance The amount of charge that flows in a circuit depends on: The voltage provided by the voltage source The resistance that the conductor offers to the flow of charge – the electric resistance The resistance of a wire depends on: The conductivity of the material used in the wire (how well it conducts) The thickness and length of the wire Temperature

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**Thick wires have less resistance than thin wires.**

Shorter wire have less resistance than longer wires. For most materials, increased temperature means increased resistance. Electrical resistance is in ohms (Ω).

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**Voltage = Current x Resistance**

34.5 Ohm’s Law The relationship between voltage, current, and resistance is called Ohm’s law. Voltage = Current x Resistance V = ( I ) ( R ) 1 ampere = 1 volt / ohm

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**Current and voltage are proportional. **

Current increases, voltage increases Current and resistance are indirectly proportional. The greater the resistance, the less the current Low resistance permits a large current, which produces considerable heat. Voltage supplies the push Resistance opposes the push Current results

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Check Understanding What is the resistance of an electric frying pan that draws 12 amperes of current when connected to a 120-volt circuit? Voltage (V)= current (I) x resistance (R) voltage = 120 volts current = 12 amp 120 volts = 12 amps x resistance resistance = 10 Ω

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**34.6 Ohm’s Law and Electric Shock**

What causes electric shock in the human body-current or voltage? The damaging effects of shock are the result of current passing through the body. Resistance of your body depends on its condition and ranges from about 100 ohms if you’re soaked with salt water to about 500,000 ohms if your skin is dry.

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**24/1000 = 0.024 A…a dangerous amount of current**

Check Understanding If your skin were very moist so that your resistance was only 1000 ohms and you touched the terminals of a 24-volt battery, how much current would you draw? V = IR 24 volts = current x 1000 ohms 24/1000 = A…a dangerous amount of current

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A bird can stand harmlessly on one wire of high potential but had better not reach over and grab a neighboring wire. Every part of their bodies is at the same high potential and they feel no ill effects. For the bird to receive a shock, there must be a difference in electric potential between one part of its body and another part. Most of the current will then pass along the path of least electric resistance, connecting these two points.

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**A third prong on a 3-prong plug connects the body of the appliance directly to ground.**

Any charge that builds up on an appliance is therefore conducted to the ground. The current will be directed into the ground rather than shocking you if you handle it.

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**34.7 Direct Current and Alternating Current**

Electric current may be DC or AC DC (direct current) refers to a flow of charge that always flows in one direction AC (alternating current) refers to a flow of charge that cycles back and forth, alternating back and forth about relatively fixed positions The primary use of electric current, whether AC or DC, is to transfer energy quietly, flexibly, and conveniently from one place to another

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**34.8 Converting AC and DC The current in your home is AC.**

The current in a battery-operated device is DC. A diode is a tiny electronic device that acts as a one-way valve to allow electron in only one direction. Since alternating current vibrate in 2 directions, only ½ of each cycle will pass through a diode.

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**34.9 The Speed of Electrons in a Circuit**

In a circuit, the signal moves nearly at the speed of light, not the electrons themselves. Conduction electrons are accelerated by the field in a direction parallel to the field lines. Before they gain appreciable speed, they “bump into” the anchored metal ions in their paths and transfer some of their KE to them This is why current-carrying wires become hot

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**34.10 Source of Electrons in a Circuit**

The actual source of electrons in a circuit is the conducting circuit material itself. Electrons do not flow from power utility thru the power lines into wall outlets; outlets are AC Electrons vibrate to and fro about relatively fixed positions

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**Energy, not electrons, flow into an AC outlet**

Power companies sell you power, you supply the electrons. The energy simply causes free electrons in your body to vibrate in unison. Small vibrations tingle; large vibrations can be fatal.

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**Electric power = current x voltage**

The rate at which electric energy is converted into another form of energy is called electric power. It is equal to the product of current and voltage Electric power = current x voltage Electric power is measured in Watts (w) Power companies use kilowatt-hour to represent the amount of energy consumed in 1 hour at the rate of 1 kilowatt.

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**Chapter 35 Electric Circuits**

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35.1 A Battery and a Bulb A complete path along which charge can flow is called a

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35.2 Electric Circuits

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35.3 Series Circuits

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35.4 Parallel Circuits

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**35.6 Combining Resistors in a Compound Circuit**

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**35.7 Parallel Circuits and Overloading**

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