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Chapter 33 Foundation Systems.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 33 Foundation Systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 33 Foundation Systems

2 Introduction All structures are required to have a foundation
Provides a base to distribute weight onto soil Must be evenly distributed to prevent it from compressing the soil Must resist floods, winds, earthquakes, and floodwater debris

3 Soil Considerations Soil texture
Affects ability to resist load of foundation Bearing capacity must be known Structures built low bearing capacity soil require footings

4 Soil Considerations (cont’d.)
Compaction methods Static force Impact forces Vibration Freezing Foundation should be built to a depth where ground is not subject to freezing Expansion and shrinking can cause cracking

5 Soil Considerations (cont’d.)
Water content As soil absorbs water, it expands Causes foundation to heave Resisted through proper drainage and reinforcing foundation and floor slab Radon Cancer-causing gas Structures built in areas with high levels must provide protection

6 Types of Foundations Piling foundation system
Beams are placed between vertical supports (i.e., piling) to support structural loads Steep hillsides Where structure load exceeds soil bearing capacity Sites subject to flooding or natural forces that cause large amounts of soil to be removed


8 Types of Foundations (cont’d.)
Continuous or spread foundation Most common for residential construction Consists of a footing and wall Concrete strength must be specified For areas of soft soil or fill material, reinforcement steel (i.e., rebar) is used




12 Types of Foundations (cont’d.)
Grade beams Added support for a foundation in unstable soil Fireplace footings IRC requires minimum footing 12" deep and extend 6" past fireplace face Veneer footings Must be wide enough to provide adequate support

13 Types of Foundations (cont’d.)
Foundation wall Vertical wall Extends from top of footing to first-floor level Usually centered on footing to spread loads Follow IRC and municipal requirements

14 Types of Foundations (cont’d.)
Additional considerations for the foundation wall Stem wall construction Anchor bolts Termite protection Wood floor support Wood floor ventilation and access Foundation wall insulation and reinforcement




18 Types of Foundations (cont’d.)
Retaining or basement walls Extends full height between basement floor and main floor level Primarily made of concrete blocks, poured concrete, or concrete-filled insulated concrete foam blocks Material used will depend on area trends

19 Types of Foundations (cont’d.)
Additional considerations for retaining or basement walls Retaining wall reinforcement and anchorage Moisture protection Foundation windows Treated-wood basement walls Pressure-treated lumber can be used to frame crawl space and basement walls

20 Types of Foundations (cont’d.)
Partial-height retaining walls When a structure is built on a sloping site, retaining wall will not need to be full height More problems are encountered

21 Types of Foundations (cont’d.)
Interior load supports Supported on spot footings or piers Metal connectors Used at the foundation level to resist stress from wind and seismic forces



24 Dimensioning Foundation Components

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