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Published byBeatrice Baker
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What is a hydrograph? a graph to show the relationship between rainfall intensity and stream discharge
Features of a hydrographit contains a bar graph showing the amount of rainfall through time; and a line graph showing the discharge of a stream
Features of a hydrographafter the rain, the discharge of the stream begins to increase. the rising amount of discharge forms the rising limb.
Features of a hydrographafter a certain period of time, discharge of the streams comes to the highest, which is called peak discharge.
Features of a hydrographwhen the rain stops, the discharge of the stream will also gradually reduce. the decreasing amount of discharge forms the falling limb or recession limb.
Features of a hydrographthe dotted line below is called the base flow which is the normal discharge of a stream supplied by groundwater.
Features of a hydrographthe time-lag is the time difference between the rainfall peak and the peak discharge. the shorter the time lag, the higher the risk of the flood
Factors affecting peak dischargeamount of rainfall duration of precipitation - longer rainfall --> reduces infiltration, increases overland flow --> high peak discharge no. of tributaries
Factors affecting time lagamount of precipitation duration of precipitation rate of infiltration steepness of the slope human activities, e.g. deforestation
Drainage basin A more infiltration more interception less runoffsmaller peak discharge smaller amount of discharge longer time lag gentle rising limb
Drainage Basin B less infiltration no interception by treesgreater surface runoff higher peak discharge larger amount of discharge shorter time lag steeper rising limb
Drainage Basin C rain water/surface runoff is trapped in the reservoirless runoff downstream water overflows only when the reservoir is full smaller peak discharge longer time lag
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