Presentation on theme: "Higher Geography Hydrosphere Homework- Answers Question 1 (a)The following points should be mentioned in your answers; –Water flows through the system."— Presentation transcript:
Higher Geography Hydrosphere Homework- Answers Question 1 (a)The following points should be mentioned in your answers; –Water flows through the system in the following ways; Evaporation Condensation Advection Precipitation Evapotranspiration Run-off Throughflow Groundwater flow.
Question 2 Most water is stored (99%) within the cycle, leaving approximately 1% in circulatory flow. Solar energy powers the circulation that maintains the balance. The hydrological cycle is a closed system, which neither loses or gains water. Water vapour may condense and be suspended in air (cloud/fog 0.01%) or it may be returned as precipitation/ In its simplest form the circularity of the flow maintains the balance between water lost through evaporation and water returned to the ground (0.62%) and sea (97.2%) through precipitation and run-off. Even in the situation where water is stored as ice (2.15%) or in deep ground water supplies, the water will eventually return to the sea e.g. ice will melt or sublimation will take place.
(a) Candidates should account for the four elemnets of the drainage basin Inputs; all forms of precipitation Storage; surface storage lakes, soil moisture, groundwater Transfers; surface run-off e.g. tributaries, throughflow, groundwater flow Outputs; transpiration evaporation, rivers Assess out of 8, must mention 3 parts of system for full marks. Question 3
Question 5 There is a clear connection between rainfall and discharge. Rain begins to fall at 1800 hrs and steadily increases to a peak of 55 cumecs between 0400- 0600am. To begin with this has little effect on the discharge with it remaining low and steady at 10 cumecs until hour 2200 when it slowly increases to a peak of 68 cumecs at about 12 noon on the 9 October. The lag time is about 8hrs. As the rainfall steadily decreases from its peak to zero at 2000hrs on the 9 October the discharge correspondingly decreases at a steady rate, until the discharge is almost back to the level it was at before the rainfall event. The shape of this hydrograph would indicate that there is a high drainage density, with impermeable surfaces creating the steep rising limb and short lag time.
Question 6 The description should stress the production of distinctive land forms e.g. upper course; Erosion-uppersections the faster velocity of flowing water produces downcuttinh and v-shaped valleys Transportation- upper course the flowing water transports larger debris/weathered material which increases erosion and produces v-shaped valleys. Deposition- in upper sections the faster flow erodes and transports. Therefore, there is less deposition and the river valley is often straighter and flowing on a steeper gradient. Larger rocks may be deposited in the upper sections. All three agents must be mentioned for full marks.
Question 7 The following points might refer to each feature Levee Coarse material built up along banks Highest ground on floodplain Coarse material deposited closest to the river channel during flooding Levees prevent flood water returning to the river. River terrace Remnants of former floodplain Present day river cut down through deposits forming a new flood plain below the earlier on. Energy for downcutting due to changes in sea level and land Base level change leads to rejuvenation An annotated diagram provided for full marks.