Presentation on theme: "Prenatal Development, Birth, and the Newborn"— Presentation transcript:
1 Prenatal Development, Birth, and the Newborn Chapter 3:Prenatal Development, Birth, and the Newborn
2 Chapter 3: Prenatal Development, Birth, and the Newborn Chapter 3 has four modules:Module 3.1 From Conception to BirthModule 3.2 Influences on Prenatal DevelopmentModule 3.3 Happy Birthday!Module 3.4 The Newborn
3 From Conception to Birth Period of the Zygote (Weeks 1-2)Period of the Embryo (Weeks 3-8)Period of the Fetus (Weeks 9-38)
4 Module 3.1 From Conception to Birth What happens to a fertilized egg in the first 2 weeks after conception?When do body structures and internal organs emerge in prenatal development?When do body systems begin to function well enough to support life?Module 3.2 Influences on Prenatal DevelopmentModule 3.3 Happy Birthday!Module 3.4 The Newborn
5 Let’s look at the next slide to view this period more closely. Period of the ZygoteKey terms:Ovulation; fertilization, implantation, fallopian tube; zygote, blastocyst; germ discCharacteristics:2 weeks duration; rapid divisionLet’s look at the next slide to view this period more closely.Begins when egg is fertilized in the fallopian tubeAfter about 4 days, the zygote consists of about 100 cells, resembles a hollowball,and is called a blastocystPeriod of rapid cell divisionEnds 2 weeks later when the zygote is implanted in the wall of the uterusGerm disc: A small cluster of cells near the center of the blastocyst, eventually develops into the baby
7 Period of the Embryo Key terms: Embryo Ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm Amnion and amniotic fluidUmbilical cordPlacentaVilliCharacteristics:Third to eighth weeks of prenatal developmentDifferentiation of organs and organ systems occursAfter the blastocyst is completely embedded in the uterine wall, it is called an embryoFrom 3 to 8 weeks after conceptionThree layers form the embryo: ectoderm, mesoderm, endodermBody parts are formed during this periodEmbryo rests in the amnion filled with amniotic fluidUmbilical cord joins embryo to placentaVilli: finger-like projections from the umbilical blood vessels
9 Period of the Fetus Key Terms: Cerebral cortex Vernix Age of viability Characteristics:From 9 weeks after conception to birthIncrease in sizeSystems begin to functionFrom 9 weeks after conception to birthIncrease in size and systems begin to functionCerebral cortex: the wrinkled surface of the brain that regulates many important human behaviorsVernix: protects the fetus during its long bath in amniotic fluidAge of viability: occurs at between 22 and 28 weeks; fetus has a chance to survive
10 Period of the Fetus Fetal Behavior: Fetal movement Behavioral maturity of senseChanges during prenatal developmentSee Summary Table on page 71
11 Five Steps Toward a Healthy Baby Regular check-upsHealthy foodsNo alcohol or caffeinated beveragesExerciseAdequate diet
12 Influences on Prenatal Development General Risk FactorsTeratogens: Diseases, Drugs, and Environmental HazardsHow Teratogens Influence Prenatal DevelopmentPrenatal Diagnosis and Treatment
13 Module 3.2 Influences on Prenatal Development Module 3.1 From Conception to BirthModule 3.2 Influences on Prenatal DevelopmentHow is prenatal development influenced by a pregnant woman’s nutrition, the stress she experiences while pregnant, and her age?What is a teratogen, and what specific diseases, drugs, and environmental hazards can be teratogens?How do teratogens affect prenatal development?How can prenatal development be monitored? Can abnormal prenatal development be corrected?Module 3.3 Happy Birthday!Module 3.4 The Newborn
14 General Risk Factors Nutrition Chronic stress Mother’s age Nutrition: adequate amount of food, protein, vitamins, & minerals (ex. spina bifida caused by inadequate levels of folic acid)Stress: decreases oxygen to fetus, weakens mother’s immune system, and leads to unhealthy behaviors such as smoking or drinking alcoholMother’s Age: neither too young nor too old is best
15 Teratogens: Diseases, Drugs, and Environmental Hazards Teratogen: agent that causes abnormal prenatal developmentDiseases passing through placenta directly or attacking at birth (Table 3-1)Potentially dangerous drugs (Table 3-2)Environmental hazards (Table 3-3)Many diseases pass through the placenta directly and attack the fetus; others attack at birthPotentially dangerous drugs are not limited to cocaine but include alcohol, caffeine, and aspirin (ex. fetal alcohol syndrome)Environmental hazards are treacherous because we’re often unaware of their presence
16 Did you hear that?Is cell phone usage a potential teratogen for pregnant women?Yes
17 How Teratogens Influence Prenatal Development Impact of teratogen depends on organism genotypeImpact of teratogens changes over course of prenatal development and depends on doseEach teratogen affects a specific aspect (or aspects) of prenatal developmentDamage is not always evident at birthSee pages 80-82
18 Let’s review the effects of teratogens across prenatal development.
19 Prenatal Diagnosis and Treatment UltrasoundAmniocentesisChorionic villus sampling (CVS)These can detect physical deformities and genetic disorders
20 Prenatal Diagnosis Chorionic Villus Sampling Amniocentesis Amniocentesis: sample taken of amniotic fluid surrounding fetus (through mother’s abdomen)CVS: sample of tissue obtained from chorionAmniocentesisChorionic Villus Sampling
21 Prenatal Diagnosis and Treatment Fetal medicineFetal surgery
22 Happy Birthday! Labor and Delivery Approaches to Childbirth Adjusting to ParenthoodBirth Complications
23 What are the stages in labor and delivery? Module 3.1 From Conception to BirthModule 3.2 Influences on Prenatal DevelopmentModule 3.3 Happy Birthday!What are the stages in labor and delivery?What are “natural” ways of coping with the pain of childbirth? Is childbirth at home safe?What are the effects of postpartum depression?What are some complications that can occur during birth?Module 3.4 The Newborn
24 Labor and Delivery Labor is usually divided into three stages Starts when muscles of uterus contract and ends when cervix is fully enlargedStage 2Baby is pushed through the birth canalStage 3Placenta is expelledLabor is usually divided into three stagesLabor is usually divided into three stagesStage 1: starts when the muscles of the uterus contract and ends when the cervix is fully enlarged (about 10 cm)Stage 2: baby is pushed through the birth canalCrowningBreech presentationStage 3: placenta is expelled (afterbirth)
25 Three Stages of LaborSee Summary Table on Page 88
26 Approaches to Childbirth Prepared childbirthNatural childbirthChildbirth with doulaChoice of place of birth
27 Approaches to Childbirth Childbirth classesContentBenefitsChildbirth classes provide information about pregnancy and childbirthChildbirth classes teach pain control through deep breathing, imagery, and supportive coaching (doula)Mothers who attend classes use less medication during labor and feel more positive about labor and birth
28 Adjusting to Parenthood Reorganization of old routinesPhysical and emotional reactionsPostpartum depressionParents often reorganize old routinesHalf of all new moms feel some irritation, resentment, and experience crying10-15% feel more severe postpartum depressionPostpartum depression affects warmth and enthusiasm of mothering
29 Birth Complications Hypoxia Cephalopelvic disproportion Irregular positionPreeclampsiaProlapsed umbilical cordLack of oxygen (hypoxia): often leads to surgical removal of the fetus (C-section)
30 Birth Complications Prematurity Low birth weight Premature and small-for-date infantsPrematurity is less serious than being small- for-date
31 True or False?Infant mortality is relatively low in the United States compared to other industrialized countries.Let’s look at these rates around the world.False. Infant mortality is relatively high in the United States compared to other industrialized countries.
32 Infant Mortality Rates Look at the infant mortality rates aboveAsk: Do you know what contributes to these statistics?
33 The Newborn Assessing the Newborn The Newborn’s Reflexes Newborn StatesPerception and Learning in the Newborn
34 How do reflexes help newborns interact with the world? Module 3.1 From Conception to BirthModule 3.2 Influences on Prenatal DevelopmentModule 3.3 Happy Birthday!Module 3.4 The NewbornHow do we determine if a baby is healthy and adjusting to life outside the uterus?How do reflexes help newborns interact with the world?What behavioral states are observable in newborns?How well do newborns experience the world? Can they learn from experience?
35 Assessing the Newborn Apgar score (Table 3-5) Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)The Apgar assesses newborns’ health including activity, pulse, grimace, appearance, and respirationThe Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) is a comprehensive assessment of infants that includes measures of alertness and ability to interact with people
36 The Newborn’s Reflexes Newborns’ reflexes prepare them to interact with the worldSurvival reflexesProtective reflexesFoundational reflexesNewborns’ reflexes prepare them to interact with the worldSome reflexes are important to survival (e.g., rooting and sucking)Some protect the newborn (e.g., blink and withdrawal)Some are foundations for later motor behavior
37 Newborn States: Primary Four primary statesAlert inactivityWaking activityCryingSleeping
38 Newborn States: Cries Three distinctive types of cries Basic Mad Pain Swaddling is a useful technique to help soothe babies
39 Newborn States: Sleep Developmental change in sleep-wake cycle Types of sleep (REM/non-REM)Co-sleeping
40 Back to Sleep CampaignThe Back to Sleep campaign began in 1994 as a way to educate parents, caregivers, and health care providers about ways to reduce the risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS).The campaign was named for its recommendation to place healthy babies on their backs to sleep.Placing babies on their backs to sleep reduces the risk for SIDS, also known as "crib death."This campaign has been successful in promoting infant back sleeping and other risk-reduction strategies to parents, family members, child care providers, health professionals, and all other caregivers of infants.
41 Perception and Learning in the Newborn All the basic perceptual processes are operating at birthNewborns can see, hear, taste, smell, and feelNewborns can also learn and remember