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**Lesson 4.3, For use with pages 252-258**

Find the product 1. (m – 8) (m – 9) ANSWER m2 – 17m + 72 2. (z + 6) (z – 10) ANSWER z2 – 4z – 60

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**3. (y +20) (y – 20) 4. (d +9)2 Lesson 4.3, For use with pages 252-258**

Find the product 3. (y +20) (y – 20) ANSWER y2 – 400 4. (d +9)2 ANSWER d2 + 18d +81

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**6. A car travels at an average speed of (m + 17) miles **

Lesson 4.3, For use with pages Find the product 5. (x – 14)2 ANSWER x2– 28x +196 6. A car travels at an average speed of (m + 17) miles per hour for (m + 2) hours. What distance does it travel? ANSWER (m2 + 9m + 14) mi

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4.3 Factoring Trinomials

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**Squares 1-20, and 25 Write the squares 1-20, 25 1 2 = 1 2 2 = 4**

1 2 = 1 = 4 = 400 = 625

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**Factoring Quadratic Rules**

Given Factored a 𝑥 2 + bx + c a 𝑥 bx + c a 𝑥 bx - c a 𝑥 bx - c ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( - Big) ( + Small ) ( + Big) ( Small )

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**Factoring Procedures for a Quadratic Equation y = a 𝑥 2 +𝑏𝑥+𝑐**

“No Fuse Method” The trinomial should be set = to y or 0, before beginning to factor. Examine each term to determine if there is a GCF that will factor from each term (Note: the GCF must factor from all three terms). If there is a GCF that will factor from all three terms, factor each term. Look at the Given equations and determine the signs for the factored binomial. If the first term in the trinomial is 𝑥 2 +4x+3, split the 𝑥 2 to x and x and put each x in the first term in each binomial. EX: ( x + ) ( x + ). Next multiply the outside term a and c together ( 1 x 3 = 3) and determine the factors of 3. The factors of 3 are 1 and 3, determine if you should add or subtract them to obtain the middle term of 4. EX: 1+3 = 4. Put the factors in the last terms of each binomial, the order does not matter because the signs on the factored binomials are both positive (x + 3) ( x + 1). If the factored binomial had been a big and small factor, then the 3 would have been the big factor and the 1 would have been the small factor. Foil the factored binomial to determine if the quadratic equation was factored properly

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EXAMPLE 1 Factor trinomials of the form x2 + bx + c Factor the expression. a. x2 – 9x + 20 b. x2 + 3x – 12 SOLUTION a. You want x2 – 9x + 20 = (x + m) (x + n) where mn = 20 and m + n = – 9. ANSWER Notice that m = – 4 and n = – 5. So, x2 – 9x + 20 = (x – 4)(x – 5).

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EXAMPLE 1 Factor trinomials of the form x2 + bx + c b. You want x2 + 3x – 12 = (x + m) (x + n) where mn = – 12 and m + n = 3. ANSWER Notice that there are no factors m and n such that m + n = 3. So, x2 + 3x – 12 cannot be factored.

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GUIDED PRACTICE for Example 1 Factor the expression. If the expression cannot be factored, say so. 1. x2 – 3x – 18 SOLUTION You want x2 – 3x – 18 = (x + m) (x + n) where mn = – 18 and m + n = – 3. Factor of – 18 : m, n 1, – 18 –1, 18 – 3, 6 – 2, 9 2, – 9 – 6, 3 Sum of factors: m + n – 17 17 3 7 – 7 – 3

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GUIDED PRACTICE for Example 1 ANSWER Notice m = – 6 and n = 3 so x2 – 3x – 18 = (x – 6) (x + 3)

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**Factor of 9 : m, n 1, 9 – 1, – 9 3, 3 – 3, – 3 Sum of factors: m + n**

GUIDED PRACTICE for Example 1 2. n2 – 3n + 9 SOLUTION You want n2 – 3n + 9 = (x + m) (x + n) where mn = 9 and m + n = – 3. Factor of : m, n 1, 9 – 1, – 9 3, 3 – 3, – 3 Sum of factors: m + n 10 –10 6 – 6

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GUIDED PRACTICE for Example 1 ANSWER Notice that there are no factors m and n such that m + n = – 3 . So, n2 – 3x + 9 cannot be factored.

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GUIDED PRACTICE for Example 1 3. r2 + 2r – 63 SOLUTION You want r2 + 2r – 63 = (x + m) (x + n) where mn = – 63 and m + n = 2. Factor of – 63 : m, n – 1, 63 1, – 63 21, – 3 – 21, – 3 9, – 7 Sum of factors: m + n – 17 11 7 2

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GUIDED PRACTICE for Example 1 ANSWER Notice that m = 9 and n = – 7 . So, r2 + 2r – 63 = (r + 9)(r –7)

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**Difference of two squares**

EXAMPLE 2 Factor with special patterns Factor the expression. a. x2 – 49 = x2 – 72 Difference of two squares = (x + 7) (x – 7) b. d d + 36 = d 2 + 2(d)(6) + 62 Perfect square trinomial = (d + 6)2 c. z2 – 26z + 169 = z2 – 2(z) (13) + 132 Perfect square trinomial = (z – 13)2

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**Difference of two squares**

GUIDED PRACTICE for Example 2 Factor the expression. 4. x2 – 9 = x2 – 32 Difference of two squares = (x – 3) (x + 3) 5. q2 – 100 = q2 – 102 Difference of two squares = (q – 10) (q + 10) 6. y2 + 16y + 64 = y2 + 2(y) Perfect square trinomial = (y + 8)2

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**Perfect square trinomial**

GUIDED PRACTICE for Example 2 7. w2 – 18w + 81 = w2 – 2(w) + 92 Perfect square trinomial = (w – 9)2

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**Write original equation.**

EXAMPLE 3 Standardized Test Practice SOLUTION x2 – 5x – 36 = 0 Write original equation. (x – 9)(x + 4) = 0 Factor. x – 9 = 0 or x + 4 = 0 Zero product property x = 9 or x = – 4 Solve for x. ANSWER The correct answer is C.

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EXAMPLE 4 Use a quadratic equation as a model Nature Preserve A town has a nature preserve with a rectangular field that measures 600 meters by 400 meters. The town wants to double the area of the field by adding land as shown. Find the new dimensions of the field.

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**Multiply using FOIL. Write in standard form. Factor.**

EXAMPLE 4 Use a quadratic equation as a model SOLUTION 480,000 = 240, x + x2 Multiply using FOIL. 0 = x x – 240,000 Write in standard form. 0 = (x – 200) (x ) Factor. x – 200 = 0 x = 0 or Zero product property x = 200 or x = – 1200 Solve for x.

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EXAMPLE 4 Use a quadratic equation as a model ANSWER Reject the negative value, – The field’s length and width should each be increased by 200 meters. The new dimensions are 800 meters by 600 meters.

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**Write original equation.**

GUIDED PRACTICE for Examples 3 and 4 8. Solve the equation x2 – x – 42 = 0. SOLUTION x2 – x – 42 = 0 Write original equation. (x + 6)(x – 7) = 0 Factor. x + 6 = or x – 7 = 0 Zero product property x = – 6 or x = 7 Solve for x.

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**Multiply using FOIL. Write in standard form. Factor.**

GUIDED PRACTICE for Examples 3 and 4 9. What If ? In Example 4, suppose the field initially measures 1000 meters by 300 meters. Find the new dimensions of the field. SOLUTION New Area New Length (meters) New width (meters) = 2(1000)(300) = ( x) (300 + x) = x + 300x + x2 Multiply using FOIL. 0 = x x – Write in standard form. 0 = (x – 200) (x ) Factor. x – 200 = 0 x = 0 or Zero product property

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**Solve for x. GUIDED PRACTICE for Examples 3 and 4 x = 200 or**

ANSWER Reject the negative value, – The field’s length and width should each be increased by 200 meters. The new dimensions are 1200 meters by 500 meters.

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**Write original function.**

EXAMPLE 5 Find the zeros of quadratic functions. Find the zeros of the function by rewriting the function in intercept form. a. y = x2 – x – 12 b. y = x2 + 12x + 36 SOLUTION a. y = x2 – x – 12 Write original function. = (x + 3) (x – 4) Factor. The zeros of the function are –3 and 4. Check Graph y = x2 – x – 12. The graph passes through (–3, 0) and (4, 0).

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**Write original function.**

EXAMPLE 5 Find the zeros of quadratic functions. Find the zeros of the function by rewriting the function in intercept form. a. y = x2 – x – 12 b. y = x2 + 12x + 36 SOLUTION b. y = x2 + 12x + 36 Write original function. = (x + 6) (x + 6) Factor. The zeros of the function is – 6 Check Graph y = x2 + 12x The graph passes through ( – 6, 0).

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**Write original function.**

GUIDED PRACTICE GUIDED PRACTICE for Example for Example 5 Find the zeros of the function by rewriting the function in intercept form. y = x2 + 5x – 14 SOLUTION y = x2 + 5x – 14 Write original function. = (x + 7) (x – 2) Factor. The zeros of the function is – 7 and 2 Check Graph y = x2 + 5x – 14. The graph passes through ( – 7, 0) and (2, 0).

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**Write original function.**

GUIDED PRACTICE GUIDED PRACTICE for Example for Example 5 y = x2 – 7x – 30 SOLUTION y = x2 – 7x – 30 Write original function. = (x + 3) (x – 10) Factor. The zeros of the function is – 3 and 10 Check Graph y = x2 – 7x – 30. The graph passes through ( – 3, 0) and (10, 0).

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**Write original function.**

GUIDED PRACTICE GUIDED PRACTICE for Example for Example 5 12. f(x) = x2 – 10x + 25 SOLUTION f(x) = x2 – 10x + 25 Write original function. = (x – 5) (x – 5) Factor. The zeros of the function is 5 Check Graph f(x) = x2 – 10x The graph passes through ( 5, 0).

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