Local Maximas/Minimas in DoG images Locating maxima and minimas by comparing the maked pixel with all its neighbour pixels in the current image, the scale above and the scale below it. If the pixel is smaller or bigger than all of its 26 neighbours it will be selected. Problem: only an approximation 12
2.(Accurate) Keypoint localization 3D Ultrasound Mosaicing - Wachinger et al.13
Remove Edges! Keypoints along edges are not stable ! How edges are found: Large principal curvature across the edge, small one in perpendicular direction The principal curvature can be computed with the Hessian matrix of the DoG function because the eigenvalues of H are propotional to the curvatures! 17
3.Orientation assignment Compute magnitude and orientation of gradients around the keypoint on smoothed images L (x,y) Create A histogram with 36 bins (each 10 degrees ) and quantize with respect to magnitude 19
20 Take the orientation with the highest peak and assign it to keypoint ! If there is a peak with at least 80% of the highest peak create a new keypoint with a diffrent orientation!
4.Keypoint descriptor 23 Image gradient magnitudes and orientations are sampled around keypoint in the region aound the keypoint A 16 x 16 sample array is used to compute a 4 x 4 descriptor position and orientation of each sample is rotated relatively to key point orientation (rotation invariance) In each field a histogram with 8 bins is created -> results in a 128 dim- vector Length of each arrow is computed with respect to the magnitude of the samples (Gaussian weight function )
Illumination Invariance Changes in contrast : normalize the vector Changes in brightness : does not affect the gradients Non-linear illumination changes: limit the values in the vector to not larger than 0.2 and renormalize to unit length 24
Key point matching matching keypoints by finding the nearest neighbour in a database of keypoints Nearest neighbour is the key point with the minimum Euclidean distance If the ratio between best and second best neighbour is bigger than 0.8 keypoints are not matched !.25