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Professor Michael J. Losacco CIS 1150 – Introduction to Computer Information Systems Programming and Languages Chapter 13.

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Presentation on theme: "Professor Michael J. Losacco CIS 1150 – Introduction to Computer Information Systems Programming and Languages Chapter 13."— Presentation transcript:

1 Professor Michael J. Losacco CIS 1150 – Introduction to Computer Information Systems Programming and Languages Chapter 13

2 Chapter13 2/29 Overview Define Programming Describe the Six Steps of Programming Discuss Design Tools Describe Program Testing Describe CASE Tools Describe Object-oriented Development Explain the Generations of Languages

3 Chapter13 3/29 Programs and Programming What Is a Program? Problem Solving Procedure Instructions for the Computer to Follow Statements Used in a Programming Language Process Data into Information

4 Chapter13 4/29 Programs and Programming What Is Programming? Six Step Procedure Program Specification Program Design Program Code Program Test Program Documentation Program Maintenance

5 Chapter13 5/29 Program Objectives Desired Output Input Data Processing Requirements Program Specifications Document Program Specification

6 Chapter13 6/29 Program Design Structured Programming Techniques Top-down Programming Design Modules Program's Processing Steps Pseudocode Outline of Program Logic

7 Chapter13 7/29 Program Design Structured Programming Techniques Flowchart Geometric Shapes Depict Sequence of Steps Logic Structures Sequential Selection Repetition

8 Chapter13 8/29 Program Code Writing The Program AKA Coding Good Program Works Reliably Produces Correct Output Catches Common Input Errors Code Is Documented and Understandable Uses Appropriate Computer Language(s)

9 Chapter13 9/29 Program Code Coding Symbols, Words, and Phrases Content-markup Language Instruct Computer to Structure Information for Display Programming Language Instruct Computer to Perform Specific Operations

10 Chapter13 10/29 Debugging Process of Testing and then Eliminating Errors Syntax Errors Violation of Programming Language Rules Logic Errors Incorrect Calculation Missing Procedure Program Test

11 Chapter13 11/29 Testing Process Desk Checking Manual Testing Attempt at Translation Testing Sample Data Testing By a Select Group of Potential Users Beta Program Test

12 Chapter13 12/29 Program Documentation Description of How to Use Program Users Operators Description of Program Procedures Programmers Maintenance

13 Chapter13 13/29 Program Maintenance 75% of Total Lifetime Cost Operations Patches Updates Changing Needs

14 Chapter13 14/29 CASE and OOP Computer-aided Software Engineering (CASE) Automates Portions of Program Design Coding Testing Object-oriented Programming (OOP) Define Relationships Between Procedures

15 Chapter13 15/29 CASE and OOP Using IDE for RAD OOP

16 Chapter13 16/29 Programming Languages Categories Low-level Languages First and Second Generation Machine Dependant Typically Determined by Processor Faster Execution, More Code Required High-level Languages Third, Fourth, and Fifth Generation Machine Independent Slower Execution, Less Code Required

17 Chapter13 17/29 Programming Languages Machine Language Only Language Directly Understood Uses Binary & Hexadecimal Assembly Language Instructions Made Up Of: Symbolic Instruction Codes Meaningful Abbreviations

18 Chapter13 18/29 Programming Languages Third Generation Language (3GL) AKA Procedural COBOL, FORTRAN, C Compiler Converts Entire Code to Machine Language Interpreter Translates One Statement at a Time Must Be Interpreted Before Every Execution

19 Chapter13 19/29 Programming Languages Fourth Generation Language (4GL) Task-oriented SQL, Application Generator More English-like Easier to Program Widely Used by Nonprogrammers

20 Chapter13 20/29 Programming Languages Fifth Generation Language (5GL) Problem and Constraint Languages Incorporate Concepts of Artificial Intelligence Computer Learns and Applies New Information Communicate Using Natural Languages

21 Chapter13 21/29 Programming Languages Top Programming Languages Ranked by Demand & Popularity IEEE 7/14

22 Chapter13 22/29 Web Development Planning Establish Site Objectives Launch a Business Presence Selling Goods or Services Increase Brand Recognition Product Information Employment Marketing Target Audience You Want to Reach Demographics

23 Chapter13 23/29 Web Development Analysis Measurable Goals Determine Functionality Web Benchmarking Competition Paradigm Shifts Other Sites that Your Users Frequent Offer Comparable Features / Capabilities Establish Timetable Budget

24 Chapter13 24/29 Web Development Design Usability Consistency Flowchart Hierarchical View of Site Storyboard Outline of Page Content Wireframe Layout of Page Content Branding

25 Chapter13 25/29 Web Development Implementation HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) Static Elements in Angle Brackets Specify Size, Color, etc. DHTML (Dynamic HTML) Graphical Interest Interactivity Develop with JavaScript, CSS

26 Chapter13 26/29 Web Development Implementation XML (Extensible Markup Language) Elements Describe Data Passed to a Client Ties Database Data to Web Pages Client, Rather Than Server, Processes Data Web Design Software Create Web pages Without Programming Generates HTML / Some JavaScript Dreamweaver, Expression Web

27 Chapter13 27/29 Web Development Testing Test Pages Against Different: Platforms Browsers Versions Monitor Resolutions Deploy FTP (File Transfer Protocol) Upload / Download to / from Web Server

28 Chapter13 28/29 Web Development Maintenance Decide What Content Needs Updating Determine Frequency Collect Statistics on Each Page Elicit Feedback from Users ROI

29 Chapter13 29/29 Careers in IT Programmer Create, Test, And Troubleshoot Programs Update and Repair Existing Programs Bachelor's Degree in Computer Science Technical Experience Patience, Logical Thinking, Meticulous Annual Salary of $49,000 - $89,000

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