Presentation on theme: "DIESEL RETROFITS FOR HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLES ROUNDTABLE ON CLEAN FUELS AND VEHICLES in TURKEY May 4, 2006 Katherine Buckley, US EPA."— Presentation transcript:
DIESEL RETROFITS FOR HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLES ROUNDTABLE ON CLEAN FUELS AND VEHICLES in TURKEY May 4, 2006 Katherine Buckley, US EPA
2 Why Diesel Retrofit? New emission standards generally only affect new vehicles or new engines. Air quality benefits must wait for fleet turnover. Diesels can last 20-30+ years or more. Cost effective technologies are available today for existing diesels. Desire to demonstrate benefits of ultra low sulfur fuel with advanced technologies.
4 Typical Retrofit Demo Schedule Establish stakeholder/technical groups Datalogging of exhaust temperatures Selection and purchase of retrofit devices Baseline emission testing Install verified retrofit devices 1 month break-in “degreening” Emission testing Public Rollout “White Cloth Test” 1 year of operation –Monitor performance and maintenance –Monitor fueling Final emission testing Outreach to public
5 Mexico City Diesel Retrofit Pilot Project Retrofitted 20 transit buses Used Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel (1 PPM) Trucked in from US Emission testing using portable RAVEM Measured PM and gaseous emissions Partnered with Mexico City, Ministry of Environment, RTP Bus Company, Center for Sustainable Transport, WRI/Embarq
6 Technologies Used Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) = Highly Effective –Filter control capabilities PM 80% to 90+% reduction CO > 75% HCs > 85% –Require Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel Optimally <15 ppm –Use on Euro II or newer engines Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOCs) = Efficient and Proven –Hundreds of thousands have been retrofitted since the 1960s on highway, mining, materials handling and construction vehicles –Durabilities in excess of 10,000 hours of operation –Diesel oxidation catalyst control capabilities PM 20 to 30% reduction CO > 40% HCs > 50% Exhaust In (Soot, CO, HC) Enter Trapped Soot Exhaust (CO 2, H 2 O) Out Cell Plugs Diesel Particulate Filter Diesel Oxidation Catalyst CarbonNOxWater CarbonSOFNOxCOHC
7 Mexico City Pilot Retrofit Highlights Use of Verified Technologies –Devices proven to reduce emissions for specific applications Comprehensive testing and Review of Results Quantitative determination of percent emissions reduction –Verified by: USA EPA (& listed at EPA.gov.OTAQ/retrofit) California Air Resources Board (CARB) Use of Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel
8 Measured Results Emissions Reductions 1991 Buses (DOC) 2001 Buses (DPF) Particulate Matter 29-44%90-92% Typical test filter – current standardsTypical test filter – current standards Test filter – 2007 standardsTest filter – 2007 standards Unused test filterUnused test filter PM Emissions with DPF
9 Additional Ongoing US EPA International Retrofit Projects Bangkok, Thailand DOCs and DPFs on transit buses, and vans 50 ppm S diesel fuel to be used with DPFs only DOCs have been installed, working well DPFs not yet installed Emission testing in laboratory on chassis dynamometer Santiago, Chile Already have 50 ppm S diesel fuel Trucks only; DPFs only Looking to incorporate retrofit into future regulatory programs Emission testing in laboratory – chassis dynamometer Beijing, China 25 Euro 1 and Euro 2 buses DOCs, DPFs and PFFs ULSD fuel for buses with DPFs Engine dyno testing at beginning and end of project PM testing with portable sampling system Dekati DMM 230 for PM only Pune, India 20 buses; DOCs, DPFs, PFFs 20 buses; DOCs, DPFs, PFFs Just launched in April 2006 Just launched in April 2006 PMT buses to participate Guidance from Advisory Group and Technical Panel “In-Kind” support from Indian partners Currently determining fuel source
10 Partial Flow Filters An intermediate step between DOCs and DPFs –New technology Using some in Beijing for first time Rely on turbulent flow and impaction to reduce PM Partial Filter Control Capabilities –PM >50% –HC and CO > 50%
11 Frequently Asked Questions Concerning Retrofit Programs Drivability Properly selected retrofit technologies do not impair driving performanceProperly selected retrofit technologies do not impair driving performanceMaintenance Oxidation catalysts and partial flow filters are virtually maintenance freeOxidation catalysts and partial flow filters are virtually maintenance free DPFS require very little maintenance (infrequent ash removal)DPFS require very little maintenance (infrequent ash removal) Effects on Engine Life Properly maintained engines and retrofit control systems do not shorten engine lifeProperly maintained engines and retrofit control systems do not shorten engine life Fuel Penalties –Most oxidation catalysts have no effect on fuel consumption –Most filters have no effect on fuel consumptionWarranties –Manufacturers provide various warranties as part of a purchase agreement Cost Considerations –DOC ($425-1500) –DPF ($3000-5500)
12 Lessons Learned Insist on verified products Go through open bidding process to get products Ensure buses have been and are well maintained Set buses to spec before testing Protect fuel supply Locking fuel caps on buses with DPFs Analyze fuel periodically for Sulfur Involve all relevant stakeholders –Stakeholder Group and Technical Panel Treat drivers and mechanics as partners Build public support Have engine manufacturer support Try to do muffler replacements if possible Strategize how to use the emission results
13 Lessons Learned (Cont) Have a key person in the city with the retrofit project to handle day-to- day things Formulate good test plan Require technical support from vendor Hold a “White Cloth” test to demonstrate DPFs to public Think about particle sizes….
14 Contacts Katherine Buckley US EPA / Office of International Affairs Tel: +1-202-564-6426 Fax: +1-202-565-2412 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com US EPA Diesel Retrofit Information: www.epa.gov/cleandiesel www.epa.gov/cleandiesel US EPA Verified Technologies Information: www.epa.gov/otaq/retrofit/retroverifiedlist.htm