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The Americas 600 - 1500 Ch 11 - The Earth and Its Peoples.

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Presentation on theme: "The Americas 600 - 1500 Ch 11 - The Earth and Its Peoples."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Americas 600 - 1500 Ch 11 - The Earth and Its Peoples

2 2 Mesoameric a 600 - 1450 Olmec - collapsed by 100 C.E. 600 - 900 = classical era Maya people of Teotihuacan 900 - 1520’s = post classical era Toltecs 900 - 1100 Aztecs capital city - Tenochtitlan 2 Olmec Toltec Maya

3 3 The Americas Mesoamerica Mayan city states 250 - 900 Toltecs 900 - 1200 Aztec Empire 1200’s - 1500’s Tenochtitlan Andean South America Inca Empire 1200’s - 1500’s

4 4 May a Government: Each city-state had its own king. Mayan calendar used by Aztec stelae - memorial pillars for leaders or for special ceremonies Performed human sacrifices to appease their gods. Humans sacrificed were prisoners of war, defeated elites. Commoners used for the labor force. Bloodletting pleased the gods, so sacrifice victims were often lacerated before being decapitated in order to produce more blood.

5 5 Continuity and Change from classical to post-classical era: Continuity: All civilizations had similar religious beliefs and practices, architecture, urban planning and social organization. Changes: Population density increased, cities became larger = Toltec and Aztec. Agriculture intensified in order to sustain the larger population. Warfare intensified, becoming more frequent and involving more people as competition for land increased. Centralized, stronger governments maintained larger armies.

6 6 Teotihuac an city population reached 200,000 had much more extensive trade and many more professional merchants than Maya civilization. Toltecs capital city = Tula much larger military than earlier civilizations Topiltzin = famous ruler, associated with the god Quetzalcoatl - legend says he was forced into exile but he promised to return some day - legend is picked up by the Aztec who anticipated his return. Why is this legend important? Quetzalcoatl = “feathered serpent”

7 7 Aztec s Tenochtitlan = capital city chinampas = floating gardens population = 200, 000 to 400,000 people Priests performed the ritual of human sacrifice. The Aztecs developed a warrior culture. They were always conquering their neighbors. Was this a good or bad idea? Why? 7 Ruling aristocrats selected Aztec ruler who was considered semi-divine.

8 8 How else did they sustain the huge population of Tenochtitlan? Tribute system = Imposed on conquered peoples, who contributed maize, beans and other foods to support Tenochtitlan.

9 9 Aztec Government semi-divine king = selected by election from among the male members of the ruling family priests king’s officials = earned positions through heroic military leadership and conquest warriors = had proven themselves in battle by taking at least 4 prisoners for sacrifice a military aristocracy formed the ruling group of the Aztec government.

10 10 Aztec Government One emperor who was treated as a god. Montezuma II becomes emperor in 1502 Which ruler seemed to be more powerful: Mayan or Aztec? Why? Which government seemed to have been more centralized Mayan or Aztec? Why?

11 11 Inca Empire Environment: Easier or harder than Aztec environment for development? Inca ruler: Considered a deity descended from he sun. Imposed one language - Quechua Controlled the economy - Inca socialism Demanded a labor tribute from all males - mita What’s more important: the development of a writing or mathematic system? Why? quipu

12 12 Waru Waru Agriculture Waru waru - an agricultural technique used in the Andes before the Incas. Combines raised beds and an irrigation system to prevent soil erosion. Adopted by the Incas. Hillside terracing.

13 13 Inca Social Classes: Same as Aztec EXCEPT: no merchant class because “trade” was controlled by the government - known as “Inca socialism”

14 14 Comparing and contrasting Aztec and Inca civilizations. Decide if the evidence supports similarities or differences in the following categories:

15 15 Aztecs and Incas: Time and Place (E & E of EESPRITE) Geography - which was more isolated? What challenges did they both faith? How may have the geographic challenges impacted political developments? Political developments Religious beliefs. Include how did religious beliefs influence the government? Economic system - Social System - Reason for their collapse -

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