Speech Preparation Selecting a topic Determining your purpose Outlining
Selecting a Topic Subject you know a lot about Subject you want to know more about Brainstorming for topics
Finding a topic Question: What are the methods of generating ideas for speech topics? Free association (e.g. clustering, mind mapping) Reference search: e.g. browse through an encyclopedia, a database, or other reference work limiting yourself to a letter (e.g. b) Internet search
“ Brainstorm ” : topics and subtopics The purpose of this activity is to illicit sub- topics under the two “ umbrella ” topics of Our Environment and Social Problems. The class is invited to suggest subtopics under each
Information from the Web Example 1: A UK governmental siteA UK governmental site Example 2: An knowledge portal on social problems and solutionsAn knowledge portal
Social Issues 1.aging8.child labor 2.unemployment9.racial discrimination 3.crime /violence10.gambling 4.health care11.juvenile delinquency 5.education for all12.smuggling 6.equity (equal rights)13.corruption 7. drug trafficking drug addiction/drug abuse 14.alcoholism 15.prostitution 16.domestic violence 17.the problem of the homeless
Determining Your Purpose General purpose –To inform: to convey info. clearly, accurately, and interestingly –To persuade: to change or structure the attitudes or actions of your audience Specific purpose –Determining factor: audience –Focus on one aspect of a topic or one distinct idea –State your specific purpose in a single infinitive phrase (to inform my audience about….; to persuade my audience to….) –Make sure your specific purpose is neither too vague nor too general –The specific purpose statement should also avoid figurative language.
Example Topic: Alternative-fuel vehicles General Purpose: To persuade Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that the federal government should speed up efforts to develop alternative-fuel vehicles. Central Idea (gist, what you want your audience to remember after they have forgotten everything else): Developing alternative-fuel vehicles will help reduce American dependence on foreign oil and will help reduce air pollution.
More Examples To inform my audience that yoga is extremely cool. To inform my audience how yoga can improve their health. To inform my audience about the Civil War. To inform my audience about the role of African American soldiers in the Civil War. To persuade my audience that something should be done about medical care. To persuade my audience that the federal government should adopt a system of national health insurance for all people in the United States.
Questions to ask about your specific purpose Meet the assignment? Can I accomplish the purpose in the time allotted? Is the purpose relevant to my audience, too trivial, too technical?
Activities 1. The most valuable questions: Work in groups of four to generate questions worth discussing on the social or environmental problems. Each group should think of three questions to be put in the pool of questions later to be further discussed. Then the whole class vote for three most valuable questions. 2. Can any of the questions develop into a speech topic? Pick one of the topics and write the specific purpose of the speech.
Outlining the Speech Two kinds of outlines used for your speeches: 1. The Preparation Outline: detailed outline used for the planning of the speech 2. The Speaking Outline: brief outline used for the delivery of the speech
Guidelines for the Preparation Outline I: 1. State the specific purpose of your speech 2. Identify the central idea; (What is the central idea?)Identify the central idea 3.Label the introduction, body, and conclusion; 4.Use a consistent pattern of symbolization and indentation;
Guidelines for the Preparation Outline II: 5. State main points and sub-points in full sentences;State main points and sub-points in full sentences 6. Label transitions, internal summaries, and internal previews; 7. Attach a bibliography; 8. Give your speech a title, if one is desired
Your preparation outline should look like this: Title Specific Purpose: …. Central Idea:….
Introduction I.Main Point 1 A. Sub-point 1.1 B. Sub-point 1.2 –1. Sub-subpoint 1.2.1 –2. Sub-subpoint 1.2.2 II. Main Point 2 A. Sub-point 2.1 1. Sub-subpoint 2.1.1 2. Sub-subpoint 2.2.2 B. Sub-point 2.2 (Transition: e.g. “Let’s start with…”)
Body I.Main Point 1 A. Sub-point 1.1 B. Sub-point 1.2 –1. Sub-subpoint 1.2.1 –2. Sub-subpoint 1.2.2 a. Sub-sub-subpoint 18.104.22.168 b.Sub-sub-subpoint 22.214.171.124 (Transition: e.g. “Now that you know…”) II.Main Point 2 A. Sub-point 2.1 –1. Sub-subpoint 2.1.1 –2. Sub-subpoint 2.2.2 B. Sub-point 2.2 C. Sub-point 2.3….
Conclusion I. Main point 1 II. Main point 2 Bibliography (use either MLA or APA style)
Guidelines for the speaking Outline: 1.Follow the visual framework used in the preparation outline; 2. Make sure the outline is legible; 3. Keep the outline as brief as possible; 4. Give yourself cues for delivering the speech.
List of statements There were 13 people at the Last Supper---Jesus and his 12 disciples. One of the most common sources of superstition is numbers. In the United States, 13 is often omitted in the floor numbering of hotels and skyscrapers. The number 13 has meant bad luck as long as anyone can remember. Identify which of the above statements is the main point and which are the sub-points and sub-sub-points.
Outline I. One of the most common sources of superstition is numbers. –A. The number 13 has meant bad luck as long as anyone can remember. 1. There were 13 people people at eh Last Supper---Jesus and his 12 disciples. 2. In the United States, 13 is often omitted in the floor numbering of hotels and skyscrapers.
Homework Assignments 1.Prepare to talk about one social problem or environmental problem. 2.Decide on a speech topic on either social or environmental problems and write an outline. 3.Develop a speaking outline from your preparation outline.