3 What causes waves?A wave is a disturbance that transfers energy from place to place.Waves are created when a source of energy causes a medium to vibrate.A vibration is a repeated back and forth or up and down motion.
4 Mediums A medium is the material through which a wave travels As a wave moves the particles of matter DO NOT move, only the energy is transferredA medium can be a solid, liquid, or gas
5 Mediums cont.The medium affects the speed of the wave traveling through it* If you increase the temperature of the medium, the wave travels faster* If you increase the density of the medium, the wave travels fasterNot all waves that we have require a medium* Light from the sun travels through empty space, there is not medium there.Mechanical waves:
6 Waves transfer energy without transferring matter.
7 Types of waves Longitudinal (compression) The wave particles vibrate back and forth in the same directions that the wave travelsAn example is a sound wave, slinky
8 Longitudinal (compression) Wave Parts of a longitudinal (compression) wave:Compression: where the molecules in the wave are close togetherRarefaction: where the molecules in the wave are spread apart.
9 Transverse WavesWaves that move the medium at right angels to the direction the wave is traveling. This means that the waves are moving in an up and down motion. An example would be a light wave.
10 Transverse Wave Vocabulary Amplitude: height from the rest position to the crest or the troughWavelength: the distance between one point on the wave to the next identical point on the wave; from top to top or bottom to bottomCrest: highest point on the waveTrough: lowest point on the waveRest position: the midline of the wave, this is the line that cuts the wave in half
12 Properties of a waveAmplitudeWavelengthFrequencySpeed
13 Amplitude- transverse wave The amplitude in a transverse wave is the maximum distance from the rest position to the crest or trough of the wave.The farther the medium moves as it vibrates, the larger the amplitude of the wave. This means that the wave has a greater amount of energy.
14 Amplitude- longitudinal wave The amplitude of a longitudinal wave is measured by how compressed or rarefied the medium becomes.Loudness measures energy in sound waves. It is measured in decibels.
15 WavelengthA wave travels a certain distance before it begins to repeat. The distance between these points is called the wavelength.In a transverse wave, it is the distance from crest to crest or trough to trough.In a longitudinal wave, it is from one compression to the next.
16 FrequencyThe number of waves that pass a given point in a set amount of time.This is the number of vibrations per second.Frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz)
17 SpeedThe speed, frequency and wavelength of a wave are related to each other through a mathematical equation.Speed = wavelength x frequencyFrequency = speed/wavelengthWavelength = speed/frequencyRemember that the speed of a wave depends on the medium that it is traveling through. However, in a given medium and under the same conditions, the speed of the wave is constant.
18 Ways Waves Interact- Reflection Reflection when an object or wave hits a surface through which it cannot pass, it bounces backLaw of ReflectionAngle of incidenceAngle of reflection
19 Ways Waves Interact-Refraction Refraction is when a wave moves from one medium into another medium at an angle, it changes speed as it enters the second medium which causes it to bend.Bending happens when one side of the wave enters the new medium before the other side.
21 Light waves Light waves are Transverse Waves This means that they do not need a medium to travel. It can travel in a vacuum.Light waves are part of the Electromagnetic SpectrumLight consists of tiny packets called photons
22 Nature of Light The atom is the source of all light A photon is a tiny bundle of energy and this is what light is made of.Light waves have different amounts of energy and most of the light waves are invisible to the human eye.The Electromagnetic Spectrum (EMS) is both electric and magnetic.
23 Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic waves transfer radiant energy and can travel through a vacuum.These waves are arranged by wavelength and frequency.
24 Radio Waves Radio waves have the lowest frequency AM and FM Radio waves: AM waves bend around hills and buildingsThe highest frequency radio waves are called Microwavesused in cooking and communicationShort wavelength waves are used in radarInfrared Waves are felt as warmth. It is sometimes referred to as a red wave.
25 Visible LightRed is the lowest visible frequency and has the lowest energy of photons.Violet is the highest frequency and has the highest energy of photons.
26 Ultraviolet Rays Ultraviolet Rays are used to kill living cells. Used in places like hospitalsAlso, this ray is responsible for burning your skin
27 X-Rays Higher frequency than UV rays Cannot pass through dense material like boneUse lead to protect the body
28 Gamma RaysGamma rays are the highest energy waves. This means that they have the most amount energySometimes radioactive materials can emit gamma raysThey come from outer spaceGamma rays photons can penetrate through 3 meters of concrete
29 Color Black = absence of color White = the presence of all colorsWhen light strikes any form of matter light can be:transmittedtransparenttranslucentabsorbedopaquereflected
30 Primary Light Colors These are red, blue and green When these colors are mixed together, they form white light
32 What is sound?Sound is a form of energy that causes molecules of a medium to vibrate back and forth.Remember that all sound waves are longitudinal waves.Waves always travel uniformly away from the source.
33 What affects the speed of sound? Density- how tightly packed the molecules are:If something is more dense, the wave travels fasterTemperature: Warmer temps make the wave travel fasterElasticity: how quickly the molecules go back together.
34 Wave interactions for sound Refraction: this is when the waves bends as it enters a new mediumReflection: when the waves hits another object and bounces offDiffraction: when the waves bend around a barrierResonance: when an object vibrates at its own natural frequency
35 Doppler EffectThis explains why you hear things before you see them. Think about a siren on a police car, ambulance, or fire truck.This is the change in frequency and pitch due to an objects motion.
36 Properties of SoundPitch: this is how high or low a sound is, the higher the frequency, the higher the pitchAmplitude: this affects the intensity of the sound. This tells you how much energy is in the wave.Quality: this refers to wave interactions.Constructive interference: 2 waves come together and make a bigger waveDestructive interference: 2 waves meet and they counteract each other making a smaller wave