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Writing with Sources Effective Integration of Research.

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Presentation on theme: "Writing with Sources Effective Integration of Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 Writing with Sources Effective Integration of Research

2 Objectives Benefits of research evidence Effective integration of research Proper citation of source material

3 Introduction Many assignments will ask you to write with sources Most have not learned how to integrate sources effectively and purposefully Take ownership of your topic by analyzing, evaluating, and synthesizing research materials Become a participant in a conversation with your sources about your topic

4 Using Outside Sources Support your thesis Support your points with statements from noted authorities Offer memorable wording of key terms or ideas Extend your ideas by introducing new information Articulate opposing positions for you to argue against ?

5 Research Integration The Goal Quotations, paraphrases, and summaries should be integrated smoothly and logically Maintain flow of paper Not confuse readers Introduce with a signal phrase

6 Signal Phrases Consists of at least author’s name and a verb Helps readers follow your train of thought Lets readers know who is speaking Vary signal phrases Choose verbs that accurately convey the tone and intent of the writer Avoid monotony of all-purpose verbs like says and writes

7 Types of Signal Phrases Arguing Argues Asserts Claims Contends Contesting Contests Denies Disputes Refutes Rejects

8 Other Signal Phrase Verbs Acknowledges Adds Admits Believes Compares Confirms Declares Endorses Grants Implies Insists Points out Reasons Reports Responds Suggests

9 Signal Phrases in Action Ellen Goodman asserts that… To summarize Judith Viorst’s observations of friends… Mary Sherry explains… Oscar Hijuelos exposes… Social activist and nutrition guru Dick Gregory demonstrates that…

10 Unannounced Quotations Never confuse your reader with a quotation that appears suddenly without introduction Unannounced quotations leave your reader wondering how the quoted material relates to the point

11 AVOID PLAGIARISM To use someone else’s idea—whether in its original form or in an altered form—without proper acknowledgement is to be guilty of plagiarism!

12 To Cite, or Not to Cite? Quote a source word for word; Refer to information and ideas from another source that you present in your own words as either paraphrase or summary; Or, cite statistics, tables, charts, graphs, or other visuals. Your own observations, experiences, ideas, and opinions; Factual information available in many sources (common knowledge); Or, proverbs, sayings, or familiar quotations.

13 Inadvertent Plagiarism Note-Taking Stage Check all direct quotations against wording of original Double-check paraphrases to be sure you have not used writer’s wording or sentence structure Writing Stage Be careful whenever you incorporate one of your notes into your paper Make sure you put quotation marks around material taken verbatim Be sure that your quotation is accurate When paraphrasing or summarizing, make sure you do not inadvertently borrow key words or sentence structure from the original.

14 Using Quotation Marks for Language Borrowed Directly Without the quotation marks, you give your reader the impression that the wording is your own. Even if you cite the source, you are guilty of plagiarism if you fail to use quotation marks. When you use another person’s exact words or sentences, you must enclose the borrowed material in quotation marks.

15 Using Your Own Words and Word Order When Summarizing and Paraphrasing Pay attention to word choice and word order, especially if you are paraphrasing. It is not enough to simply use a synonym here or there and think you have paraphrased the source. You must restate the original idea in your own words, using your own style and sentence structure. When summarizing or paraphrasing a source, you must use your own language.

16 Conclusion For more guidance, go to m/plagiarismtutorial Lecture adapted from Models for Writer’s: Short Essays for Composition, 10 th ed., by Rosa and Eschholz

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