Presentation on theme: "Categorization of Radioactive Sources"— Presentation transcript:
1 Categorization of Radioactive Sources Day 8 – Lecture 7
2 ObjectiveTo understand categorization system of radioactive sources and its application in establishing the appropriate degree of regulatory control for activities relating to the safety and security of radioactive sources.
3 Contents Objective and Scope Categorization system Implementation of the categorization system
5 Objectives of categorization of radioactive sources Provides a system for ranking of sources and practices in terms of their potential to cause harm to human health.Categorization supports international harmonization of controlling radioactive sources and their security.Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive SourcesGuidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources
6 Applications of categorization Developing or refining national regulatory infrastructures;Developing national strategies for improving control over radioactive sources;Optimizing use resources by setting priorities for regulation;Optimizing security measures for radioactive sources;Emergency planning and response.
7 Scope of the RS-G-1.9 Radioactive sealed sources Sources used in industry, medicine, agriculture, research and education;Sources within military or defence programmes, where appropriate in the national context;Categorization is concerned with sealed sources, however, the method can also be used to unsealed sources.RS-G-1.9 is NOT applicable toRadiation generating devices (x-ray machines, accelerators)Nuclear materialWaste management of disused radioactive sourcesPackages of radioactive material in transport
8 Application of the Categorization Guidance A national categorization for establishing the appropriate degree of regulatory control shouldbe based on a national inventory of practices and sourcesconsider national circumstances and resourcesTake into account also practices and sources not covered by the RS-G-1.9:Use of unsealed sourcesUse of x-ray devices and accelerators
10 Categorization System The categorization is based on the concept of dangerous sources which are quantified in terms of D values.The D value is the radionuclide-specific activity of a source which, if not under control, could cause severe deterministic health effects.D values are used as normalizing factors to provide a reference for comparing risks.
11 Exposure scenarios used in deriving the D values An unshielded source (the D1 value)carried in the hand for one hourcarried in a pocket for 10 hoursbeing in a room for days to weeksDispersal of a source by fire, explosion or human action (the D2 value)inhalation, ingestion and/or skin contaminationThe lower value of D1 and D2 is used as the D value.
12 Examples of the D values Radionuclide D (TBq)AmCoCsIrPuSrTc-99m
13 Categorization System Initial ranking of sources:The activity (A) of a source is divided by the corresponding radionuclide specific D value.For commonly used sources the ratio A/D ranges from 106 to 10-6.To obtain useful number of categories also other factors are considered:physical and chemical formtype of shieldingcircumstances of useaccident case histories
14 Categorization System (cont) Five categories are introducedCategory Activity ratio (A/D)1 A/D ≥ 1000> A/D ≥ 10> A/D ≥ 1> A/D ≥ 0.01> A/Dand A > exempt
17 Category 3 Sources 10 > A/D ≥ 1 ExamplesFixed industrial gauges that incorporate high activity sourcesWell logging gauges
18 Category 4 Sources 1 > A/D ≥ 0.01 ExamplesLow dose rate brachytherapy sources (except eye plagues and permanent implants)Industrial gauges that do not incorporate high activity sourcesBone densitometersStatic eliminators
19 0.01 >A/D and A > exempt Category 5 Sources0.01 >A/D and A > exemptExamplesLow dose rate brachytherapy eye plagues and permanent implant sourcesX-ray fluorescence (XRF) devicesElectron capture devicesMossbauer spectrometry sourcesPositron emission tomography (PET) sources
20 Summary of Categorization System Activity ratioA/DTeletherapy sourcesIrradiatorsIndustrial gamma radiography sourcesHigh/medium dose rate brachytherapy sourcesIndustrial gauges with high activity sourcesWell logging gaugesLow dose rate brachytherapy sourcesIndustrial gauges with moderate/low activity sourcesX-ray fluorescence (XRF) devicesElectron capture devices1234510001010.01exempt
21 Part III: Implementation of the categorization system
22 Use of the Categorization System Regulatory measuresA factor to be taken into account in a graded system for notification, registration and inspections.Assist in ensuring that allocation of resources to protection measures is commensurate with the degree of risk.Security measuresTo optimize security measures for radioactive sources, including measures directed against their possible malicious misuse.
23 Use of the Categorization System (cont) National register of sourcesTo optimize decisions regarding which sources should be included and what level of detail should be used in a national register of sources.Import/export controlsTo optimize decisions regarding which sources should be subject to import and export controls, in meeting national and international standards.
24 Use of the Categorization System (cont) Labelling of high activity sourcesTo guide decisions regarding which sources should be marked with an appropriate label warning of the radiation hazard.Emergency preparedness and responseTo ensure that emergency preparedness plans and response to accidents are commensurate with the hazards posed by the source.
25 Use of the Categorization System (cont) Prioritization for regaining control over orphan sourcesTo inform decisions relating to how efforts should be focused to regain control over orphan sources.Communication with the publicTo provide a basis for explaining the relative hazard associated with events involving radioactive sources.
26 Use of categorizationThe regulatory body should use the D and A/D values of the Safety Guide RS-G-1.9 to categorize the sources included in the national inventory of sources.Situations where case by case considerations needed:short half-life radionuclidesunsealed sourcesaggregation of sources
27 Aggregation of sources In situations where several sources are in close proximity to each other, the regulatory body may wish to aggregate the activity in the sources to determine a situation based categorization for the purpose of regulatory control.In addition to activity, also other factors may need to be considered because aggregations in different situations may have different safety implications.
28 Aggregation of sources where Ai,n = activity of each individual source i of radionuclide n Dn = D value of radionuclide n
29 National register of radioactive sources The regulatory body should maintain a national register of radioactive sources;The register should contain, as a minimum, Category 1 and 2 sources, but preferably also Category 3 sources;The regulatory body should determine whether also Category 4 and 5 should be included;
30 Import and export of radioactive sources The Code of Conduct on Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources provides general guidance for the import and export of Category 1 and 2 sourcesImport/Export guidance* provides specific procedures for the import and export authorization of Category 1 and 2 sources* Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources IAEA, Vienna (2012)
31 Communication with the public The Safety Guide RS-G-1.9 provides also plain language descriptions of the categories for the purpose of public information.In summary:CategoryRisk in being close to an source1Extremely dangerous2Very dangerous3Dangerous4Unlikely to be dangerous5Most unlikely to be dangerous
32 ReferencesCategorization of Radioactive Sources, Safety Guide RS-G-1.9, IAEA, Vienna (2005).Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, IAEA, Vienna (2004).Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources IAEA, Vienna (2012).Method for Developing Arrangements for Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency: Updating IAEA-TECDOC-953, EPR-Method 2003, IAEA, Vienna (2003).
33 ExerciseA moisture/density gauge includes a 300 MBq Cs-137 source and a 1.48 GBq Am-Be source.What is the appropriate category for such a device?