Presentation on theme: "Introduction to phrases & clauses"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to phrases & clauses Chapter 3Introduction to phrases & clauses
2 Using these slidesThese slides are planned to help you be a more effective reader of the Longman Student Grammar.Please have the book in hand as we go through Chapter 3.
3 Getting an overview of the chapter This chapter is quite small compared to others in the book. How long is it?What 2 sections do they promise on page 37?Flip through. Get a sense of the sections.Also look to see what kinds of “visible” data they present.Find the reviews that come at the end of section major chunk. You might try reading those first to see what the authors consider the most important information in each section.
4 Organization in grammar reference books Notice that grammar reference books generallyStart with the most general and common elementsEnd up with interesting but infrequent aspects of the grammar of the chapterWhat does that organization suggest for a reader?!!
5 What you need to be sure to understand By the end of our study of this chapter, you need to be sure that youKnow the difference between phrases & clausesKnow the most common types of phrasesKnow the most common types of clausesBegin to know about the uses of types of phrases and clauses in different registers
6 Register information in Chapter 3? In my initial look through the chapter, I didn’t see any of the “visible frequency” figures they gave before.But the review on page 46 mentions register differences in use of longer and more complex phrases….so it’s there somewhere.As you read, mark the places where they mention register differences and their corpus data.
7 Words, phrases, clausesThe purposes for this chapter: “to see how words pattern together to form phrases” and “to see how phrases pattern together to form clauses.” (p. 38)Patterns & Grammarians: Grammarians are always looking for patterns…not singularities but patterns.Combinations that get repeated.Systematic choices among words that are part of sub-groups.
8 How should we talk about phrases? We need to learn to talk about phrases in terms ofStructure: the kinds of words that are put together to make phrases and the ways those words are orderedSyntactic roles: the ways that different kinds of phrases are put together to make up clausesCommunication uses: the ways that phrases are used in different types of communication…register differences
9 What are phrases like? See their summary on the top of page 39! Then, we’ll go through each of those statements.
10 Graphical systems in grammar Grammarians have a really difficult task as we try to show readers the internal structures of grammatical units.How can we mark up the examples to make their structure more visible to readers and students?Two major systems are used now in many publicationsBracketing….using [ ] to mark words that go togetherpage 38 Example 1Trees…drawing lines down from a set of words to show which words go togetherPage 39 Figures 3.1 and 3.2
11 Embedded DefinedEmbedded is the term used in linguistics to mean “one thing inside another thing.”The example on page 38 involves a noun phrase inside a prepositional phrase:… [by [the opposition]]The brackets end up being double sets of brackets to show that the preposition has a noun phrase in its objectNoun phrase: the oppositionPrepositional phrase: by the opposition
12 Analyzing phrasesInternal Structure: the kinds of words that are combined and the order they are combined inWhat kinds of words are combined to make a noun phrase?Articles, adjectives, nouns, etc.Syntactic roles: the ways that the phrases are used in clausesHow is a noun phrase used in a clause?Subject, object, etc.What’s this businesses with clauses?Why don’t they ever talk about sentences?
13 What are the most important types of phrases? Well, you make a list. What can you see by flipping ahead from page 41?Noun phrasesVerb phrasesAdjective phrasesAdverb phrasesPrepositional phrases
14 How should you read the descriptions of phrases? So…read these sections that way asking yourself these questions:What’re the forms? What kinds of words are combined to make these?How are they used to make other kinds of grammatical units?How are they used in context? Are there any register differences?Grammar materials are just about always going to tell you 2 things about a grammatical item:1. how it is made…its internal structure….the words that can be combined and their word order2. how the phrase type is used to make up larger unitsYou can also expect to start seeing more and more information about “use in context”:4. how are these phrases used in particular kinds of communication
15 Noun phrase terminology HeadCheck the glossary!ModifierComplementRemember to let me knowIf and when you get confusedAbout terminology!
16 Yeah, they count, too Yep. Noun phrase includes Single nouns as well as 2 or more words with a noun as the headPronounsProper nounsAdjectives used like nouns (the brave, the impossible)
17 Noun phraseSo, what’s a noun phrase? Try writing a definition or saying the complete definition out loud to yourself.Structure: A noun phrase is ….Use: A noun phrase is used in clauses as ….
18 Verb phrase Ok. So. What’s in a verb phrase? What’s the head of a verb phrase?What other stuff can be added to that head?In the lecture for Session 3,I’ll look at Table 3.1 in detail.
19 Adjective phrase structure What’s the head?What other kinds of things can be added?What’s a complement?Check the glossary!
20 Predicative? Attributive? Adjective phrase use involvesAdjectives that are used after be or another linking verb. These uses are called “predicative adjectives.”She is smart. He is tall.Adjectives that are used before a noun are called “attributive adjectives.”The smart student. The tall teacher.When we look at adjectives in more detail,You’ll see that some adjectives can beattributive but not predicative. Forexample, solar = solar power but notThe power is solar.
21 Adverb vs. adverbialOh, dear, 2 terms that seem a lot a like. What do they mean?Adverb = adverb phraseA single word adverb orA phrase with the adverb as its headAdverbial includes adverb phrases but also other grammatical forms that have adverbial meaningAdverb clauseBecause she is smart, she gets good grades.Prepositional phrase for adverbial meaningShe lives on Main Street.
22 Prepositional phraseWhat’s a prepositional phrase? What structure does it have?What work does it do?“The preposition can be thought of as a link relating the noun phrase to preceding structure.”Sometimes a prepositional phrase is at the same level as a subject or verb phrase and acts as an adverbial. So, it connects to the clause:She lives in Atlanta.Sometimes a preposition phrase connects to a noun and is part of the noun phrase.I need the book on the bottom shelf.
23 ClausesClauses are analyzed based on the kind of verb and the kind of stuff required by that verb.So, we have the basic clause types given on page 47.I’ll go over that table in my lecture so you’ll see that information again.But, look closely right now at the middle of page 47 for the list of verb “valency” types. Take a look at the definition in this website: valence. So, a verb attracts certain kinds of other grammar… or it doesn’t.Intransitive verbs: no attraction, no object in = noTransitive verbs: attract objects
24 Basic clause patterns The basic clause patterns involve Verb Types Subject + verb + whatever else is required by that verb typeVerb TypesIn-transitive: no object possibleDrugs kill.Mono-transitive: has to have 1 objectHe owns a very old car.Copular: links the subject to an adjective or a noun phrase or a prepositional phrase to describe the subjectHis car is very old. His car is at the mechanic. His old car is a Ford.Di-transitive: direct and indirect objectsHis brother gave him the car.Complex transitive: Well, we’ll just look at the examples for now.The car makes him crazy.He’s sending a letter about the car to his brother.
25 Basic clause elements A clause is made up of 1. Verb phrase 2. Subject 3. Object (not always required, depends on the verb type)4. Predicative (required by copular verbs)5. Adverbials (usually optional but sometimes required by certain verbs)
26 Long Verb PhraseThis term is one that they have developed to replace what others call the predicate.The long verb phrase is made up ofA verb phraseEverything that the verb phrase requires based on the type of verbCould include objects (monotransitive, ditransitive)Could include complements (copular)Could include adverbials (optional or required)A clause, then, combinessubject + long verb phrase
27 Where are we at the end of Chapter 3? Give yourself a test. Write down your answers to these questions.What’s a phrase?What are the basic phrase types?What’s a clause?What’re the basic clause types?How do phrases & clauses interact with each other?Now flip back to the section of the chapter with the information to check your memory.Also, re-read the reviews at the end of each section of the chapter:Phrase review: page 46Clause review: page 54
28 Now What? Read the chapter. Listen to and read my lectures on WebCT. Do the quizzes.Make notes about any of the information that might be important for your paper.me with your questions. Remember that I want to hear about what you do NOT understand…your questions about the parts of the chapter that confuse you.