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Farm & Ranch Business Management

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Presentation on theme: "Farm & Ranch Business Management"— Presentation transcript:

1 Farm & Ranch Business Management
Chapter #2 Record Keeping

2 Why keep records? income tax reporting requirements
assist in planning and management obtaining credit

3 What kinds of records need to be kept?
1) Cash Flow Statement: monthly cash inflows and outflows 2) Net Worth Statement: asset minus liabilities shows financial condition of business lists all assets & values, liabilities & values also known as a balance sheet

4 What kinds of records need to be kept?
3) Income Statement: shows profit for a given time (1 year) also known as a Profit/Loss Statement 4) Detailed Enterprise Analysis: identifies factors that affect the profitability and efficiency of the individual enterprises Records allow you to compare past performance with present performance and future goals

5 What kinds of records need to be kept?
Cash Flow Projection: estimate monthly cash inflows and outflows Whole Farm Budgets: compares alternative courses of action Risk Management Plan: statistical calculation of the probabilities of success

6 What steps need to be taken to set up a record system?
1) select a record keeping system suited to their particular needs 2) select an accounting system suited to your business situation 3) select a method of reporting farm income and expenses 4) develop a procedure to get exactly the information needed from the records

7 What kinds of records are there?
Financial receipts & expenses net worth income statement cash flow Physical production records of crops/livestock crop yield birth, wean wt.

8 What are the types of accounting systems?
Double entry system: each credit transaction must be balanced by a debit transaction Single entry system: no balance is maintained

9 What methods are used to report income and expenses?
1) Cash Method: records of actual cash transactions income & expenses recorded in year that actually received or paid no inventory kept for unsold products or supplies cost of items bought for resale are not deducted until year actually sold

10 Cash Method provides flexibility in choosing when to take income and deduct expenses if the farmer shows a profit, cash is available to pay income taxes expenses are not deducted until cash is paid inventories must be made to compute financial statements income may be erratic

11 Accrual Method income and expenses reported when they actually occur
uses an inventory to match income & expense to the appropriate time period levels out peaks and valleys in income detailed and complex required all items must be inventoried

12 Accrual Method easier to determine net farm income and analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the farm business from year to year work with abstract figures (may only show profit on paper) actual cash position may be difficult to estimate

13 Record Keeping Procedures
learn about record keeping system before you begin develop a habit of keeping record up to date do most business through a bank account (also identify items on deposit slips: borrowed money, gift, bushels, pounds) get the bank statement each month and reconcile the checkbook and record keeping system

14 Record Keeping Steps enter the beginning of the year inventories (owned assets, accounts payable, beginning cash balance) set up depreciation schedules enter receipts, expenses, and production records enter end of year inventories complete the farm analysis (income taxes, financial statements, enterprise analysis, cash flow)

15 What is an Inventory? list of all assets and values

16 Why keep an inventory? get a true picture (on net worth statement)
beginning to ending inventory change must use in accrual method place a value on assets

17 What items are inventoried?
all unsold items at end of tax year crops in storage raised livestock all items purchased for resale but not yet sold livestock

18 What items are inventoried?
hedging contracts crop and livestock supplies capital assets breeding livestock machinery & equipment buildings & land accounts receivable & payable liabilities

19 Guidelines for making inventories
measure quantities in commonly used units (bushels, tons, cwt., pounds) group like items (cows, bulls, replacement heifers, calves)

20 How do you place a value on inventory items?
Cost minus depreciation Cost minus depletion: value changes as resources are removed (gravel pit) Market cost: actual cost (used within a short time, feed, seed) Net Market Price: if you sell the product (wheat)

21 How do you place a value on inventory items?
Farm Production Costs: actual amount invested in crop Actual Amount: value of liability owed

22 What are Cash Receipts? cash flowing into a business business income
crop sales,Government payments, patronage dividends (co-ops), resales (only net gain is taxed), cash rent, Crop insurance payments, raised nonbreeding livestock, capital sales, wages, dividends received, stock distributions, oil & gas royalties, interest received from savings, rental income, gifts, inheritance, life insurance

23 What are Cash Expenditures?
money flowing out of a business business expenses hired labor, repairs & maintenance, interest paid, feed, seeds, fertilizer & chemicals, machine hire, supplies (useful life <1 yr.), breeding fees, veterinary & medicine, fuel & oil, storage, taxes (real estate, personal property), insurance (on farm assets), utilities, cash rent, freight & trucking, items purchased for resale, capital purchases, money paid on accounts payable

24 Hired Labor Records social security and unemployment taxes may need to be paid by employer


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