2 Cognitive Objectives7-1.1 Discuss the medical and nonmedical equipment needed to respond to a call.7-1.2 List the phases of an out-of-hospital call.7-1.3 Discuss the role of the First Responder in extrication.7-1.4 List various methods of gaining access to the patient.(1 of 3)
3 Cognitive Objectives7-1.5 Distinguish between simple and complex access.7-1.6 Describe what the First Responder should do if there is reason to believe that there is a hazard at the scene.7-1.7 State the role the First Responder should perform until appropriately trained personnel arrive at the scene of a hazardous materials situation.(2 of 3)
4 Cognitive Objectives7-1.8 Describe the criteria for a multiple-casualty situation.7-1.9 Discuss the role of the First Responder in the multiple-casualty situation.Summarize the components of basic triage.(3 of 3)
5 Affective ObjectiveExplain the rationale for having the unit preparedto respond.
6 Psychomotor Objective Given a scenario of a mass-casualty incident, perform triage.
7 Knowledge and Attitude Objectives Explain the medical and nonmedical equipment needed to respond to a call.List the five phases of an emergency call for a first responder.Discuss the role of a first responder in extrication.List the seven steps in the extrication process.(1 of 4)
8 Knowledge and Attitude Objectives List the various methods of gaining access to a patient.Describe the simple extrication procedures that a first responder can perform.List the complex extrication procedures that require specially trained personnel.(2 of 4)
9 Knowledge and Attitude Objectives State the responsibilities of the first responder in incidents where hazardous materials are present.Describe the actions that a first responder should take in hazardous materials incidents before the arrival of specially trained personnel.Define a multiple-casualty incident.(3 of 4)
10 Knowledge and Attitude Objectives Describe the role of a first responder in a multiple-casualty incident.Describe the purpose of the National Incident Management System.Describe the steps in the START triage system.(4 of 4)
11 Skill ObjectivesPerform simple procedures for gaining access to a wrecked vehicle.Triage a simulated multiple-casualty incident using the START triage system.
12 EMS Operations Be prepared to respond with the proper equipment. Know simple extrication procedures and the basics of air medical response.Understand the purpose of the incident management system and NIMS.Understand basic triage and the START system.
13 Preparing for a Call Be prepared to respond promptly. Use the most direct route.Have the proper equipment to perform your job.Equipment must be stocked and maintained on a regular basis.
14 First Responder Life Support Kit Patient examination equipmentPersonal safety equipmentResuscitation equipmentBandaging and dressing equipmentPatient immobilization equipmentExtrication equipmentMiscellaneous equipment(1 of 2)
28 ExtricationSimple techniques to access, treat, and extricate patients who are trapped in vehiclesPrimary goals for first responders:Obtain safe access to patients.Ensure patient stabilization.(1 of 2)
29 Extrication Know your limitations. Identify hazards. Control hazards if trained.Gain access to patients.Provide patient care and stabilization.Move patients only if necessary.(2 of 2)
30 7 Steps of Extrication Conduct overview of scene. Stabilize scene; control hazards.Gain access to patients.Provide initial emergency care.Help disentangle patients.Help prepare patients for removal.Help remove patients.
31 Overview of the Scene Anticipate and plan for what you might find. Overview the scene before exiting your vehicle.DetermineExtent of incidentNumber of patientsIf any hazards existCall for assistance.(1 of 2)
32 Overview of the SceneCourtesy of District Chief Chris E. Mickal/New Orleans Fire Department, Photo UnitAs you approach an accident, look over the entire scene.(2 of 2)
33 Stabilize Scene and Hazards Infectious diseasesTraffic hazardsBystandersSpilled gasolineAutomobile batteriesDowned electrical wiresUnstable vehiclesVehicle fires
35 Hazards Infectious diseases Follow BSI precautions. Wear heavy rescue gloves.Traffic hazardsPark vehicles so they protect the scene and warn other motorists.(2 of 5)
36 HazardsBystandersGive specific directions about where they should move to.Spilled gasolineCall fire department.Consider covering with dirt.(3 of 5)
37 Hazards Automobile batteries Turn off vehicle’s ignition to reduce possibility of electrical short circuit.Downed electrical wiresLocate wires but avoid contact.Keep trapped persons inside vehicle and all bystanders away from scene.(4 of 5)
38 Hazards Unstable vehicles On their wheels On their sides or upside-downVehicle firesUse dry chemical fire extinguisher.Remove patients as quickly as possible.(5 of 5)
39 Gain Access to Patients Access through doorsAlways try doors first!Start with least damaged door.(1 of 2)
40 Gain Access to Patients Access through windowsBreak side windows rather than windshield.Wear proper safety equipment.(2 of 2)
41 Provide Initial Emergency Care Conduct a patient assessment.Monitor ABCs.Control bleeding.Treat for shock.Stabilize cervical spine.(1 of 2)
42 Provide Initial Emergency Care Provide psychological reassurance.Maintain patient’s body temperature.Leave the patient in vehicle unless in immediate danger.Keep patients stabilized and immobilized until properly packaged and removed.(2 of 2)
43 Assist With Patient Removal Help disentangle patients.Help prepare patients for removal.Access route may not be large enough for extrication.Help remove patients.
44 The Golden HourThe less time spent on scene with a seriously injured patient, the better.Chance for survival increases if rescuers get the patient to a trauma center within 1 hour of injury.
45 Review of the Extrication Process Call for help.Specify types of vehicles involved.Identify and contain hazards.Park your vehicle so headlights and warning lights can be used to protect scene.(1 of 2)
46 Review of the Extrication Process Clear a working area around the accident.Remember to try opening the doors first.Once you gain access, assess and monitor patients.Keep your cool!(2 of 2)
47 HazMat Incidents Your first priority is to protect yourself. The most important step is to identify the substance.Unless you have received training, you should keep away from the hot zone.Wait for the help of trained personnel.(1 of 2)
48 HazMat Incidents Patients with HazMat injuries Very few specific antidotes or treatmentsEmergency treatment usually aimed at supportive careConstantly evaluate patient’s vital signs.(2 of 2)
49 Multiple-Casualty Incidents Multiple-casualty incidents: Situations with more than one sick or injured individualProvide the greatest medical benefit for the greatest number of people.Triage: Sorting of patients into groups according to their need for treatmentShould be simple and fast
50 Visual SurveyPrepare yourself mentally and force yourself to stay calm.Visually assess:Number of patientsSeverity of injuriesHow much help is needed
51 Initial Radio Report Location of incident Type of incident Hazards Approximate number of victimsType of assistance neededBe as specific as possible.
52 Sorting PatientsDo not become involved in treating the first or second patient you see.TriageGet to each patient quickly.Conduct rapid assessment.Do not stop except to correct airway and severe bleeding problems.
53 START System Simple Triage And Rapid Treatment Based on breathing, circulation, and mental status (BCM)Designed to help identify the most seriously injured patients
54 Four Colors of TriagePriority One (Red tag): Immediate care/life threateningPriority Two (Yellow tag): Urgent care/can delay up to 1 hourPriority Three (Green tag): Delayed care/can delay up to 3 hoursPriority Four (Gray/Black tag): Patient is dead/no care required.
56 START Steps Step 1: Get up and walk. Step 2: Begin where you stand. Breathing: It all starts here.Circulation: Is oxygen getting around?Mental status: Open your eyes.
57 Working at Mass-Casualty Incidents Report to incident commander (IC).IC will assign you an area.Effective incident command system (ICS) depends on integrated, agreed-upon protocols and procedures.Learn the ICS used in your area.
58 National Incident Management System Developed by U.S. Department of Homeland SecurityProvides a consistent and unified approach to handling emergency incidents(1 of 2)
59 National Incident Management System Role of first responder falls into Command and Management area.Federal government requires many agencies to utilize NIMS.You may be required to be trained.(2 of 2)