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Chapter 8 Trade Restrictions: Tariff Barriers

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1 Chapter 8 Trade Restrictions: Tariff Barriers
INTERNATIONAL TRADE Chapter 8 Trade Restrictions: Tariff Barriers 经济学院 柳哲

2 Chapter 8 Trade Restrictions: Tariff Barriers
8.1 The tariff concept 8.1.1 definition A tariff is a tax levied on a commodity when it crosses the boundary of a customs area. Import tariff, which is a tax levied on an imported product. Export tariff, which is a tax imposed on an exported product. 8.1.2 purposes Protective tariff is designed to insulate import-competing producers from foreign competition. Revenue tariff is imposed for the purpose of generating tax revenues and may be placed on both exports and imports.

3 8.1.3 Means of Collecting Tariffs
specific tariff a fixed amount of money per physical unit of the imported product. ad valorem tariff a fixed percentage of the value of the imported product. compound tariff a combination of a specific and an ad valorem tariff. 8.2 Partial Equilibrium Analysis of a Tariff a small nation imposes a tariff on imports competing with the output of a small domestic industry. Then the tariff will affect neither world prices nor the rest of the economy.

4 8.2.1 Partial Equilibrium effects of a Tariff
The trade effect --- the decline in imports = 30X (BN+CM) The Revenue effect --- the revenue collected by the government = $30 (MJHN) The Consumption effect of the tariff --- the reduction in domestic consumption = 20X (BN) The production effect --- the expansion of domestic production resulting from the tariff = 10X (CM) Substitution effect or protection effect

5 8.2.2 Effect of a Tariff on consumer and Producer Surplus
consumer surplus is difference between what consumers would be willing to pay for each unit of the commodity and what they actually pay g Without tariff When Q <, or =D0 Consumers would be willing to pay OD0FG Consumers actually pay OD0FA So, consumer surplus is: AFG When tariff = t and P=P*+t Consumers would be willing to pay OD1EB. Consumers actually pay OD1EB So, consumer surplus is: BEG The tariff reduce the consumer surplus AFG – BEG = AFEB=a+b+c+d

6 Producer’s revenue = e+f
Producer surplus is the revenue producers receive over and above the minimum amount required to induce them to supply the goods (profit) g Without tariff Producer’s revenue = e+f Producer’s cost = f Producer surplus = e Producer’s cost = b+f+g When tariff = t Producer’s revenue = a+b+e+f+g Producer surplus = a+e The tariff increases producer surplus by area a

7 8.3 The degree of protection afforded by a tariff
8.3.1 Tariff Level   Tariff Level = Amount of Import tariff / Amount of import x100%    Tariff Level = ∑C / ∑P = ∑(PxR) / ∑P 8.3.2 Nominal Rate of Protection --- NRP NRP = (Pd – Pa) / Pa Pd: the price of a commodity in domestic market Pa : The price of a commodity in abroad market NRP = tariff rate of the final commodity = t (without considering the effect of exchange rate)

8 8.3.3 Effective Rate of Protection --- ERP
ERP indicates how much protection is actually provided to the domestic processing of the import competing commodity ERP signifies the total increase in domestic productive activities (value added) that an existing tariff structure makes possible, compared with what would occur under free-trade conditions. ERP =(V’ – V) / V V’: value added in domestic productive activities V: value added in abroad, free trade conditions

9 ERP =(V’ – V) / V V’ = (P2 + C2) – (P1 + C1) P2: price of final product C2: amount of import duty of final product P1: price of input C1: amount of import duty of input V = P2 – P1 (P2 + C2) – (P1 + C1) – (P2 – P1) So, ERP = P2 – P1 =(C2 –C1) / (P2 – P1) =(C2 –C1) / (P2 – P1)

10 the nominal tariff rate on the imported input
ERP = (C2 –C1) / (P2 – P1) C2 P2 C1 P1 X 1 – P1/P2 = the ratio of the cost of the imported input to the price of the final commodity in the absence of tariffs P1/P2 = ai C2/P2 = t the nominal tariff rate on consumers of the final commodity C1/P1 = ti the nominal tariff rate on the imported input ERP = t – ai X ti 1 – ai

11 Import Duty (Norma Tariff)
Varies of tariff rate Import Duty (Norma Tariff) a. Common duties b. Most – favoured Duties Most – Favored – Nation Treatment c. Preferential Duties d. Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) Import Surtax a. Anti – Dumping duty d. Penalty Tariff b. Anti – Subsidy duty e. Retaliatory Tariff c. Emergency Tariff

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