 # Experiment 8 * Op Amp Circuits Review * Voltage Followers and Adders

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Experiment 8 * Op Amp Circuits Review * Voltage Followers and Adders
* Differentiators and Integrators * Analog Computers

Op Amp Circuits Review Inverting Amplifier Non-inverting Amplifier
Differential Amplifier Op Amp Analysis

Inverting Amplifier

Non Inverting Amplifier

Differential Amplifier

Op Amp Analysis Golden Rules of Op Amp Analysis
1) The current at the inputs is 0 2) The voltage at the two inputs is the same These are theoretical assumptions which allow us to analyze the op-amp circuit to determine what it does. These rules essentially allow us to remove the op amp from the circuit.

General Analysis Example(1)
Assume we have the circuit above, where Zf and Zin represent any combination of resistors, capacitors and inductors.

General Analysis Example(2)
We remove the op amp from the circuit and write an equation for each input voltage. Note that the current through Zin and Zf is the same, because equation 1 is a series circuit.

General Analysis Example(3)
Since I=V/Z, we can write the following: But VA = VB = 0, therefore:

General Analysis Conclusion
For any op amp circuit where the positive input is grounded, as pictured above, the equation for the behavior is given by:

What is a voltage follower? Why is it useful? Voltage follower limitations Adders

What is a voltage follower?

Why is it useful? In this voltage divider, we get a different output depending upon the load we put on the circuit. Why?

We can use a voltage follower to convert this real voltage source into an ideal voltage source.
The power now comes from the +/- 15 volts to the op amp and the load will not affect the output.

Voltage follower limitations
Voltage followers will not work if their voltage or current limits are exceeded. Voltage followers are also called buffers and voltage regulators.

Weighted Adders Unlike differential amplifiers, adders are also useful when R1<>R2. This is called a “Weighted Adder” A weighted adder allows you to combine several different signals with a different gain on each input. You can use weighted adders to build audio mixers and digital-to-analog converters.

If I2

Differentiators and Integrators
Ideal Differentiator Ideal Integrator Miller (non-ideal) Integrator Comparison of Integration and Differentiation

Ideal Differentiator

Analysis in time domain

Problem with ideal differentiator
Real Circuits will always have some kind of input resistance, even if it is just the 50 ohms from the function generator.

Analysis of real differentiator
Low Frequencies High Frequencies ideal differentiator inverting amplifier

Comparison of ideal and non-ideal
Both differentiate in sloped region. Both curves are idealized, real output is less well behaved. A real differentiator works at frequencies below wc=1/RinCin

Ideal Integrator

Analysis in time domain

Problem with ideal integrator (1)
No DC offset. Works ok.

Problem with ideal integrator (2)
With DC offset. Saturates immediately. What is the integration of a constant?

Miller (non-ideal) Integrator
If we add a resistor to the feedback path, we get a device that behaves better, but does not integrate at all frequencies.

Behavior of Miller integrator
Low Frequencies High Frequencies inverting amplifier signal disappears The influence of the capacitor dominates at higher frequencies. Therefore, it acts as an integrator at higher frequencies, where it also tends to attenuate (make less) the signal.

Analysis of Miller integrator
Low Frequencies High Frequencies ideal integrator inverting amplifier

Comparison of ideal and non-ideal
Both integrate in sloped region. Both curves are idealized, real output is less well behaved. A real integrator works at frequencies above wc=1/RfCf

Problem solved with Miller integrator
With DC offset. Still integrates fine.

Why use a Miller integrator?
Would the ideal integrator work on a signal with no DC offset? Is there such a thing as a perfect signal in real life? noise will always be present ideal integrator will integrate the noise Therefore, we use the Miller integrator for real circuits. Miller integrators work as integrators at w > wc where wc=1/RfCf

Comparison The op amp circuit will invert the signal and modify the mathematical amplitude by RC (differentiator) or 1/RC (integrator)

Analog Computers (circa. 1970)
Analog computers use op-amp circuits to do real-time mathematical operations.

Using an Analog Computer
Users would hard wire adders, differentiators, etc. using the internal circuits in the computer to perform whatever task they wanted in real time.

Analog vs. Digital Computers
In the 60’s and 70’s analog and digital computers competed. Analog Advantage: real time Disadvantage: hard wired Digital Advantage: more flexible, could program jobs Disadvantage: slower Digital wins they got faster they became multi-user they got even more flexible and could do more than just math

Now analog computers live in museums with old digital computers:
Mind Machine Web Museum: Analog Computer Museum: