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Catholic missionaries from Spain & France converted Indians

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1 Unit 4: Latin American Revolutions, Nationalism, and the Unification of Italy and Germany

2 Catholic missionaries from Spain & France converted Indians
From 1500 to 1800, Latin America was colonized by Europe, especially Spain Mercantilism is when the colonies provide raw materials and markets for the mother country. European nations used mercantilism to gain wealth from their American colonies Reasons to colonize Gold God Glory Greed Catholic missionaries from Spain & France converted Indians

3 Colonial Society Divided
A Race and Class System Latin America has social classes that determine jobs and authority Peninsulares—born in Spain, they head colonial government and society Creoles—American-born Spaniards who can become army officers Mestizos—have both European and Native American ancestry Mulattos—have both European and African ancestry Slaves and Native Americans are at the bottom of society


5 Yes you must think a bit but it shouldn’t hurt too much
Quick Class Discussion: Yes you must think a bit but it shouldn’t hurt too much Which social group will lead these Latin American Revolutions? Why? Where did they get the idea to revolt & created democracies?

6 By the late 1700s, Latin Americans were inspired to gain independence because of the success of the American & French Revolutions The ideas of the Enlightenment inspired independence especially among the well-educated Creole class

7 Latin American Revolutions

8 Revolutions in the Americas
Revolution in Hispaniola (Haiti) Haiti is the first Latin American territory to gain freedom Toussaint L’Ouverture leads 100,000 slaves against the French (1791) Napoleon will send army to combat the Haitian Revolt. Toussaint eventually dies in a French prison in 1803. French soldiers weakened by outbreak of yellow fever.

9 Revolutions in Haiti Haiti’s Independence
Jean-Jacques Dessalines declares Saint Domingue (western third of Hispaniola) a country in 1804 Saint Domingue becomes first black colony to win independence Renamed Haiti, means “mountainous land” in the Arawak language Emperor Jacques is assassinated in 1806 by disaffected members of his administration. In 1820, Haiti became a republic.

10 Mexico Ends Spanish Rule
A Cry for Freedom Father Miguel Hidalgo—priest who launches Mexican revolt (1810). Creoles supported revolt at first, but then rejected Hidalgo’s call for an end to slavery. 80,000 Indian and Mestizo followers march on Mexico City Jose Maria Morelos—leads revolt after Hidalgo’s defeat, but loses Both Hidalgo and Morelos were executed.

11 Mexico Ends Spanish Rule
Mexico’s Independence Mexican creoles react; Augustin de Iturbide (a Mexican General) declares Mexico independent (1821) Iturbide reigns briefly as emperor until March 1823. Republic of Mexico setup. In 1823, United Provinces of Central America breaks away from Mexico Agustín de Iturbide

12 Iturbide is credited with designing the first Mexican flag. (1821-1823)
Today’s Flag of Mexico The tri-color flag is still used, and the presence of the eagle is also used in the modern flag of Mexico used since 1968.

13 Creoles Lead Independence
The Spread of Enlightenment Ideas Enlightenment ideas inspire Latin American revolutionaries Creole Leaders Simón Bolívar “The Liberator”—wealthy Creole leads Venezuela in revolution José de San Martín—leader of Argentinean revolutionary forces

14 Bolivar’s 1807 return from Europe by way of the United States allowed him to study the American system of government. In 1810, Bolivar went to London to seek support for the revolution in Latin America. At the same time, he studied British institutions of government.

15 Portraits of Bolivar and San Martin

16 Creoles Lead Independence
Bolívar’s Route to Victory Venezuela declares independence in 1811; Bolivar wins war by 1821 Liberates New Grenada (Columbia) and Ecuador. San Martín Leads Southern Liberation Forces Argentina is independent in 1816; San Martin helps free Chile Bolívar’s and San Martín’s armies drive Spanish out of Peru in 1824.

17 Brazil’s Royal Liberator
A Bloodless Revolution Napoleon invades Portugal; royal family moves to Brazil (1807) Portuguese court returns to Portugal after Napoleon’s defeat (1815) The Imperial Palace in Rio de Janeiro where King John VI of Portugal had transferred the Portuguese Royal Court to Brazil.

18 Brazil’s Royal Liberator
Portuguese prince Dom Pedro stays behind in Brazil Dom Pedro accepts Brazilian’s request to rule their own country He officially declares Brazil’s independence (September 1822) He accepted a constitution that provided for freedom of the press, religion and an elected legislature. By 1830, nearly all of Latin American regions win independence Pedro I of Brazil

19 Flag of the independent Empire of Brazil under Pedro I

20 European and American Reaction
British were interested in establishing commercial opportunities and prevented intervention from other Europeans in Latin America. American President James Monroe demanded that Europeans stay out of the affairs of the Western Hemisphere. (Monroe Doctrine)

21 Throughout Latin America, new democratic republics were created
But, Latin Americans did not have a history of self-government & many of the new gov’ts were unstable In many nations, military dictators called caudillos seized power & made few reforms for citizens Latin America became dependent on the USA

22 Clash of Philosophies Three Philosophies: In the early 1800s, three schools of political thought conflict in Europe Conservative—landowners and nobles want traditional monarchies Liberal—wealthy merchants and business owners want limited democracy Radical—believe in liberty and equality. They want everyone to have a vote.

23 Conservatives Wanted to return to the way things were before 1789 & The French Revolution. Resist change Want stability Those who ruled Europe after the French Revolution were conservatives The Concert of Europe (periodic meetings between Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria and France) was an attempt to limit revolution and maintain conservative control

24 Conservatives of the early 1800s
Preferred a social order where the lower classes respected and obeyed the upper classes Most backed an established church (Catholic, Orthodox, or Protestant) Believed in slow change They did not believe in natural rights or constitutional government There was a real fear of “mob rule” Most felt that the uneducated poor were not capable of intelligent rule

25 Metternich Metternich of Austria felt that firm action was needed to maintain the status quo Repress any revolutionary ideas Control the press Crush any protests Send troops (even into neighboring countries) to suppress rebellion Establish legitimacy of rule.

26 Liberals Along with nationalists, opposed conservatives
Most were speaking for the bourgeoisie (middle class) Wanted constitutions and separation of power, natural rights, a republican form of government, protection of property rights Almost all opposed monarchies. Heavily influenced by Enlightenment and the French and American Revolutions

27 Liberals (cont.) Wanted universal manhood suffrage
Strongly supported laissez faire economics (remember, most of these were businessmen-so most were capitalists) Therefore, many of these who supported “bourgeois liberalism” had different goals (as business owners) than did the workers in these factories

28 Nationalists Wanted to do away with the artificial boundaries that had been set up for countries due to wars, treaties, dynastic marriages, etc. Wanted to unify as a country due to a common heritage A negative effect of nationalism was intolerance of minorities in a given area and, at times, persecution of other ethnic or national groups

29 Nationalism Develops Nationalism and Nation-States
Nationalism—loyalty to a nation of people with common culture and history Nation-State—nation with its own independent government In 1815 Europe, only France, England and Spain are nation-states Liberals and radicals support nationalism, but conservatives do not.



32 Central Europe Revolts
Rebellions erupted over the Balkan peninsula and along the southern fringe of Europe The Serbs were the first to revolt Led by Karageorge, they led a guerrilla war against the Ottomans (they were part of the Ottoman Empire) from He was unsuccessful, but stirred up intense Serbian nationalism

33 Serbia Gains Independence
Serbia gains autonomy, or self-rule under the leadership of Milos Obrenovic with the help of Russia Russia was the largest Slavic country and looked upon Serbia as a little brother Both were Slavic in language and both were Christian Orthodox in religion

34 Nationalists Challenge Conservative Power
“The Eastern Question”: Greeks Gain Independence Balkans—region of Europe controlled by the Ottomans in early 1800s. Greece gets European help to gain independence from the Turks. Britain and France send fleets. Russia invades provinces of Moldavia and Walachia

35 Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires
The Ottoman Empire Weakens Internal tensions among ethnic groups weaken the empire. This resulted in the region being highly unstable, known as the “Balkan Powder Keg” Seeing the Ottomans as weak, “the old man of Europe”, the other European powers moved in to take what they wanted, splitting the Empire up. Russia moved around the Black Sea, Austria-Hungary grabbed Bosnia and Herzegovina, while England and France moved to take the Middle East and North Africa.

36 Europe’s Reaction Revolts occurred in Spain, Portugal, parts of Italy
Metternich urged rulers to crush any revolts in Europe French and Austrian troops left their countries to smash uprisings in neighboring countries They were successful at first, but the result was the people getting even more upset Agitators and social reformers began urging workers to support socialism or other new ideas

37 Nationalists Challenge Conservative Power
1830s Uprisings Crushed Belgian, Italian, Polish liberals and nationalists launch revolts. By the mid-1830s, conservatives are back in control

38 France Revolts Again Louis XVIII was put back on the French throne, but allowed a constitution and 2 house legislature When he died, his son Charles X, an absolutist, suspended the legislature, limited the press, and limited the right to vote Paris reacted violently

39 Radicals Change France
Conservative Defeat In 1830, France’s Charles X fails to restore absolute monarchy The Third Republic In 1848, a Paris mob overthrows the monarchy and sets up a republic Radicals split by infighting; moderates control the new government 1848 constitution calls for elected president and parliament

40 The King Runs Radicals and liberals threw up barricades and threw stones and roof tiles at the soldiers They soon controlled Paris, and the king fled to England Liberals refused the radicals call for a republic and set up a “citizen king”, Louis Philippe (a cousin of Charles X) forming a constitutional monarchy

41 Louis Philippe Louis Philippe was called the “citizen king” because he owed his power to the people, especially the bourgeoisie He dressed like them, in a frock coat and top hat, and strolled the streets, talking with them His government was filled with liberals and the upper bourgeoisie prospered (with his policies favoring them over their workers)

42 Turmoil in France Louis Philippe’s government was corrupt
Socialists called for an end to private property The country entered a recession poor harvests led to higher bread prices Factories closed and unemployment increased Newspapers blamed the government The government moved to suppress critics and stop private meetings

43 February Days People again took to the streets with barricades
Fighting erupted between the people and the army As it got worse, Louis Philippe abdicated and fled to England Socialists started a new republic (The Second Republic) There were problems from the beginning; liberals wanted moderate reforms, socialists wanted sweeping reforms and forced the government to set up government-supported workshops for the poor

44 June Days By June (about 4 months later), upper and middle class factions had gained control of the government They viewed the workshops as a waste of money and shut them down Workers rioted and bourgeois liberals attacked them They were joined by peasants who feared that the socialists might take their land 1500 died before the government took control

45 France Is Divided The fighting from June Days left France deeply divided The middle class hated and feared the socialists and the workers hated the bourgeoisie Again, people want order, so the National Assembly issued a constitution, created a strong president and one-house legislature

46 Radicals Change France
France Accepts a Strong Ruler Louis-Napoleon—Napoleon Bonaparte’s nephew—is elected president Louis-Napoleon later takes the title emperor. He promotes industrialization.

47 A New Bonaparte Napoleon’s nephew, Louis Napoleon was elected by appealing to the working man and on the basis of his famous name People wanted stability and Napoleon had brought stability to France Like his famous uncle, he declared himself emperor (with the support of the people-by means of a plebiscite)-Napoleon III

48 “When France sneezes, Europe catches cold” - Metternich
What does this mean?

49 Belgium and Holland The Congress of Vienna tried to combine the two countries into a strong barrier to the French in the north This, obviously, was an artificial barrier for the good of the conservatives in containing France

50 The Belgians React The Belgian people were very unhappy with this situation They were Catholic, the Dutch were Protestant They had different languages and customs They were manufacturers, the Dutch were traders They reacted by throwing up barricades, threatened revolt, and demanded independence

51 Belgium Gains Independence
Britain and France both thought that they would benefit from a separate Belgium and Holland, so they supported Belgium Belgium became an independent country with a liberal constitution

52 Poland Poland was divided up by Russia, Prussia, and Austria
They wanted to be united as a single country, but most of the country had been handed over to Russia When Polish army officers, students, and landowners rebelled, they were crushed by the Russians They got little support from other countries

53 Austrian Empire Riots broke out in all of the major cities
Metternich censored the press and tried to contain the anger Students smuggled in books and began to protest Workers joined the students Metternich disguised himself to flee Austria (for England) This began a series of revolutions throughout Europe

54 Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires
The Breakup of the Austrian Empire Austria includes people from many ethnic groups Half were Slavic peoples: Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Ukrainians, Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes 1866 defeat in Austro-Prussian War and Hungarian nationalism forces emperor to split the empire into Austria and Hungary (Dual Monarchy) Francis Joseph was Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary. Flag of Austria-Hungary representing two kingdoms, but ruled by one emperor. This was a concession to Hungarian nationalism. Nationalist unrest would continue.

55 Hungary Louis Kossuth was a Hungarian journalist in Budapest who demanded an independent government to end serfdom The Czechs next door made similar demands The Austrians gave in temporarily until they could bring troops in to smash any rebellion

56 German States University students again led the fight for national unity and liberal reforms A potato famine brought peasants and workers into the fight King Frederick William IV agreed to a constitution written by an elected assembly He dissolved the assembly within a year

57 German Issues – Frankfurt Assembly
Should a united Germany: Be a republic or a monarchy? Should Austria be included? They spoke German The previous slide’s King Frederick William IV was offered the crown of a United Germany He refused, saying that the crown was offered “from the gutter” (or by the common man)

58 Rebellions Fade By the 1850s, most of the rebellions that had been happening since the late 1700s faded away Why? The use of military force Loss of mass support Focus of change shifted from revolution to political activity

59 German Unification Background
During the 1800s the modern area of Germany was actually made up of 350 independent states Napoleon dissolved Holy Roman Empire. Prussia became the most important of these states They were the largest state and had the best economy and most powerful military

60 Map of Germany Before Unification

61 German Unification Background
During Napoleon’s rule he took over most of the modern day area of Germany Feelings of nationalism started to emerge since the German people wanted to be free from Napoleon’s rule The German people had their own shared language, ethnicity, history, geography, and religion It was time for them to get rid of foreign influence (Napoleon/France) and unify themselves

62 German Unification Background
After Napoleon’s defeat, some German nationalists called for the unification of Germany These people were blocked by Metternich at the Congress of Vienna

63 German Unification Process
Otto von Bismarck Most important person in the unification of Germany He was the prime minister of Prussia. Member of the Junker class (landowning nobles). He believed in realpolitik Governments should not be idealistic Governments should always do what is in their best interest Disregard morals and scruples if necessary Use any practical means to meet your goals

64 German Unification Process
Otto von Bismarck Bismarck did not believe that speeches and government would unify Germany Instead he believed Germany would be unified by “blood and iron” Germany would be unified by winning wars Germany would fight three major wars in order to unify itself

65 German Unification Process
Otto von Bismarck in a speech given to the Prussian Parliament “Germany does not look to Prussia’s liberalism, but to her power…The great questions of the day are not to be decided by speeches and majority resolutions––that was the mistake of 1848 and 1849––but by blood and iron.”

66 German Unification Process
Danish War 1864, Prussia allied with Austria to seize land from Denmark Austro-Prussian War 1866 Prussia turned against Austria to gain more land Prussia beat Austria in just seven weeks Several German states were annexed by Prussia to form the North German Confederation Franco-Prussian War 1870 Bismarck stirred up feelings of nationalism and bitterness against Napoleon to convince the Germans to go to war against France By 1871 they had defeated the French During the war, southern German states agreed to unite with Prussia

67 German Unification Process
By 1871 German Unification was completed The Prussian King, William I, became the Kaiser (emperor) of a united Germany Second Reich or Empire was born. 2 House legislature Bundesrat (Upper House) & Reichstag (Lower House)

68 After Unification Centralized Power under Bismarck (Iron Chancellor)
Militarism/military alliances Encouragement of Industry Chemical and Energy industries Persecution of Subject Nationalities Germanization Fought Catholics Fought Socialists

69 Actions Against Catholic Church
The Kulturkampf against the Catholic Church Believed that the Catholics were loyal to the pope and not him Persecuted the Catholics: made them stronger Bismarck's move backfired, and he would work to make peace with the Church

70 Bismarck’s Domestic Policies
Bismarck vs. Labor Unions and Socialists 1st violence/did not work Weakened the unions and socialists through social security legislation Insurance for retirement, sickness and disability Social Security system Becomes model for rest of Europe

71 Germany Strengthens Germany Becomes an Industrial Giant
By the late 1800’s, German Chemical and Electrical industries were the best in Europe, and Germany possessed a merchant marine second only to Britain’s Making Economic Progress Germany possessed most of the same resources that Britain had to achieve industrialization, including vast coal and iron deposits, especially in the Ruhr valley. Krupp – steel and weapons August Thyssen – steel Carl Zeiss - optics Promoting Scientific and Economic Development Science in industry Educated workers Synthetics Single currency Coordinated railroads Protectionist policies

72 Kaiser William II Asked Bismarck to resign.
Believed in divine right theory. Resisted efforts for democratic reforms. Expanded social welfare programs. Expanded German military and navy. Expanded German empire to rival the British and the French.

73 Italy Italy was comprised of many small states along the peninsula that had broken away from Hapsburg control Revolutionaries expelled the pope from Rome and set up a nationalist government Austrian troops broke up the small states and French troops restored the pope to Rome

74 Italian Unification Background
Ever since the fall of the Roman Empire in the 400s, Italy had been divided into many small states After the Congress of Vienna, the separate Italian states were put under the control of Spain and Austria Feelings of nationalism grew stronger over the years Italians had the same ethnicity, language, history, geography, religion

75 Three Main Leaders of Italian Unification
Giuseppe Mazzini “The Soul” Leader of the Young Italy movement: secret society that worked for the unification of Italy French forces crushed Mazzini's brief Italian republic. His writings and speeches inspired nationalist feelings in the Italian people

76 Three Main Leaders of Italian Unification
Count Camillo Cavour “The Brain” Prime Minister of Sardinia (one of the states in Italy) A diplomat who worked alliances with France and Prussia Used diplomacy and war to drive Austria out of power in Italy. Practiced realpolitik

77 Three Main Leaders of Italian Unification
Giuseppe Garibaldi “The Sword” Professional soldier and leader of the Red Shirts in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Accepted aid from Cavour Started in Southern Italy and moved north, conquering each place as he went, unifying Italy piece by piece

78 Italian Unification Completed
Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia aided Garibaldi’s troops In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was crowned king of a unified Italy Italy still faced some problems The urban north argued with the rural south The Catholic Church resisted the new government Socialists and Anarchists threatened the conservative government under Victor Emmanuel.

79 Reform in Russia Despite the efforts of Peter the Great and Catherine the Great, Russia remained economically underdeveloped and backward. Serfdom in Russia Czars fail to free the serfs because they fear losing the support of landowners. Nicholas I & Absolutism “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationalism” Unable to change the serf-landowner system.

80 Reform in Russia Defeat Brings Change
Russia’s lack of industrialization leads to military defeat in the Crimean War. Alexander II—czar who determines to make social and economic changes Alexander II was also called “Alexander the Liberator.” In Finland he is known as “the Good Czar.” Why?

81 Reform in Russia Reform and Reaction
In 1861, Alexander II emancipates the serfs, but debt keeps them on the same land. Reform halts when Alexander II is assassinated by terrorists in 1881. Alexander III imposed strict censorship and increased the power of the secret police. Driven by nationalism, Alexander III encourages industrialization, railroad building, and iron and coal mines with factories. The Church of the Savior on Blood commemorates the place where Alexander II was assassinated.

82 Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires
The Russian Empire Crumbles After 370 years, Russian czars begin losing control over their empire Russification—forcing other peoples to adopt Russian culture Pogroms – violent mob attacks on Jews. Policy further disunites Russia, strengthens ethnic nationalism

83 Russian Revolution of 1905 Bloody Sunday Loss of faith in the czar
Russian workers strike  workers take over local governments. Minority nationalities demand independence. October Manifesto protects freedom of person, speech and assembly. Duma, or elected legislature formed Nicholas II would dissolve the Duma and named Peter Stolypin as Prime Minister Stolypin would institute reforms until he was assassinated in 1911.

84 A Shift in Power Balance Is Lost
In 1815 the Congress of Vienna established five powers in Europe: Austria Prussia Britain France Russia By 1871, Britain and Prussia (now Germany) have gained much power Austria and Russia are weaker militarily and economically. New nations have formed in Central Europe and South Eastern Europe due to the weakening of the Austrian Empire and the Ottoman Empire.

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