2 Who creates laws?The laws that US citizens are expected to obey come from:CongressState LegislaturesAdministrative agencies
3 Administrative Agencies Considered to be hidden lawmakers, making rules and regulations that affect business and industry.Agencies usually hold public hearings before issuing proposed regulations.Example of a law created by an agency- To get an original social security card, a person must present documents to prove his or her age, US citizenship or alien status, and true identity.
4 Vague Laws A law that is difficult to interpret Cannot be enforced Ex. A law that makes it illegal for people to gesture in a way that makes people uncomfortable.Ex. A criminal violation of loitering for an unreasonable amount of time.
5 Separation of PowersEstablishes the US Constitution and federal laws as the supreme law of the land.
6 Political ValuesLaws based on these reflect the relationship between government and individuals.
8 Congress The lawmaking body of our federal government Has power to pass statutes (laws) binding on the people of every state.
9 Bills How laws are introduced into legislatures Meant to respond to the needs of the citizensUsed to enact new laws or amend or repeal or old lawsCan be introduced byLegislatorsExecutive BranchIndividual CitizensCitizens’ GroupsBusinessesLobbyistsCourts
10 Executive BranchEnforces the lawsPresident, Police, FBI, DEA, etc
11 Judicial BranchMakes laws through its rulings when it interprets the Constitution or the meaning of law.A judge who interprets what the legislature means is interpreting legislative intent.
12 Ordinances Laws or issue rules passed by local governments. Ex. Smoking in restaurants
13 Precedent Court-made law Established by a court when its decisions on legal questions give direction to future cases on similar questions.
14 Supremacy ClausePortion of the constitution that states that anytime a federal law conflicts with a state law that the federal law will be followed.Granted by 10th AmendmentEx. Right to die
15 Keys to drafting effective laws Write the law in a clear language.Include the effective date of the law.Make sure the law is enforceable and identifies who has the authority to enforce it.
16 Appellate CourtsHigher courts that people who lose a trial can ask to review and change the result of the trial.
17 International Treaties An agreement or contract between two countries.Only binding to the US, if it is signed by the president and is ratified by at least 2/3 of the senate.Along with the US Constitution, is the supreme law of the land.