Presentation on theme: "Food poisoning Its is also known as food intoxication. can be by chemical or poisonous plats and animals or by microorganism Chemical which can cause."— Presentation transcript:
Food poisoning Its is also known as food intoxication. can be by chemical or poisonous plats and animals or by microorganism Chemical which can cause poisoning may enter food from pesticides, insecticides or utensils. The common chemicals are Antimony, Lead, Arsenic, Zinc Poisonous plants cause farism from fara beans ad snake root. Poisonous mushrooms and even some shell fish.
Food poisoning an acute illness resulting from ingestion of some injurious agents present in food So food poisoning is differs to illness caused by a toxin already present in food when it is consumed. The multiplication of ingested microbes leads to food infection. Here the diagnoses is made from fecal sample of the patient showing the organism or from the food eating showing organism.
food poisoning is of two types BOTULISM – toxin produced by clostridium botulism STAPHYLOCOCAL FOOD POISIONING - caused by staphylococous aureus. BOTULISM- THE NAME BOTULISM COMES FROM LATIN WORD BOTOLUS, WHICH MEANS SAUSAGES. Organism is - anaerobic Gram + Rod shaped Spore former Saprophytic Formed commonly in soil
BOTULISM is of 6 types on the basis of serological specificity of toxins Types – A, B, C, D, E, F A, B, E, F are toxic to humans. It is a specific intoxication caused by ingestion of food in which clostridium botulism has grown and execrated its toxin. When food is canned or otherwise preserved the spores are not destroyed. During the period between preservation and use the spores revert to the growing stage i.e. into vegetative cells.
When contaminated food is cooked for a meal and not heated enough with destroy toxin and when this is ingested, toxin is absorbed through intestinal wall and is mostly absorbed in small intestine and it paralysis the involuntary muscles of the body. The toxin can remain in canned food for up to 6 months. IT IS SAID THAT HALF A POUND OF BOTULISM TOXIN CAN WIPE OUT THE WHOLE WORLD. Meat, fish, low or medium acid canned foods support toxic production and the food gets a purification odour. Meat and fish are more susceptible then fruit and vegetables. All outbreaks of botulism comes from food which are smoked, canned, pickled, allowed to stand for some time and eaten without sufficient cooling Incubation period is – 12-36 hours
Symptoms- Acute digestion disturbance. Nausea and vomiting. Fatigue. Headache. Dizziness. Double vision. Difficulty in swallowing an speaking because tongue is swollen. Involuntary muscles get paralyzed. Paralysis then spreads to respiratory system and heart which is causes death with in 3 rd day.
Treatment – Is removing the unabsorbed toxin from alimentary track, neutralizing the toxin with antitoxin and treating the symptom such as respiratory distress.
STAPHYLOCOCCAL- Caused by STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Which is an intoxication caused by ingesting an enterotoxin produced by staphylococcus aureus Its is termed as enterotoxin because it causes gastroenteritis or inflammation of the living of stomach or intestines. Organism is gram + Non spore forming Aerobic Can tolerate high salt concentration, therefore can be isolated easily on salt agars. They are comparitatively resistant to environmental stress.
Have high resistance to heat. Are resistant to drying and radiation, which helps to survive on skin surfaces Resistant to high osmotic pressure. The organism is comparitatively found in nasal passages from where it contaminate hands, from where it can readily enter food. If organism is allowed to incubate in food, a situation calls temperature abuse occurs, then they reproduce and release enterotoxin into the food. The production of toxin of serological type A which is respirate for most cases is often co-related with the production of an enzyme that coagulate blood plasma.
Generally a production of about 1 million bacteria per gm of food will produce enough enter toxin to cause illness. Organism is killed by boiling but toxin is heat stable and may survive even 100 c for 30 min. The organism get into food either from animals or humans. Since the organism is heat resistant, it can remain in food even after organism have died. The toxin directly act on intestine and CNS. Toxin production is best between 21-36% and becomes evident within 4-6 hrs.
This organism is seen maximum in meat, milk products, custard, cream, pies, salads. Any food prepared in advance and not get chilled are at potential source of this food poisoning because food contamination by human handlers cannot be avoided completely. So the most reliable method of preventing is adequate refrigeration. INCUBATION PERIOD is 2-3 hrs. Symptoms are- Salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, diarrhea with blood, headache, vascular cramping, sweating, chills, shock, weak pulse, below normal body temperature.
Duration is 1-2 days and recovery is complete. CONDITION NEEDED FOR OUTBREAK- Food should have enter toxin producing staphylococci. Food should be good culture medium for growth and toxin production Temperature should be favorable for growth and enough time be given to toxin production.
PRECOUTIONS- AVOID ABOVE CONDITIONS- Using pasteurized milk. Adequate refrigeration. Adjusting food to more acidic pH.