2 Bones of the Lower Leg,Foot, & Ankle The foot is broken down into three major regions:-Forefoot:5 Metatarsals, 14 Phalanges,2 sesamoids-Mid-foot:Navicular, Cuboid, Cuneiforms-Hind-foot:Talus and Calcaneus-Talocrual Joint (Ankle Joint):Tibia, Fibula, Talus
11 (5 Metatarsals, 14 Phalanges, 2 sesamoids) Joints of the FootForefoot(5 Metatarsals, 14 Phalanges, 2 sesamoids)Metatarsophalengeal Joints: The articulation of the metatarsals and phalangesMTP, PIP, DIPIntermetatarsal Joints: The articulation of the metatarsals.Tarsometatarsal Joints: The articulation of the Tarsals and Metatarsals.
12 (Navicular, Cuboid, 3 cuneiforms) Joints of the FootThe Mid-Foot(Navicular, Cuboid, 3 cuneiforms)Calcaneocuboid jointTalocalcaneonavicular jointCuneonavicularCuboideonavicularCuneocuboidIntercuneiform
13 Joints of the Lower Leg, Foot, & Ankle The Hind-Foot(The Talus and Calcaneus)Talocrual Joint (Ankle Joint): The articulation between the talus, tibia, and lateral malleolus (distal end of the fibula)
17 Ligaments of the Foot & Ankle plantar fascia-the thick connective tissue which supports the arch of the foot. It runs from the tuberosity of the calcaneus forward to the heads of the metatarsal bones.
30 Conditions of the Lower Leg, Foot, and Ankle Hallux RigidusHallux ValgusClaw, hammer, and mallet toeTurf toeJones FracturePlantar FasciitisHeel SpursLateral Ankle SprainEversion Ankle SprainCalcaneal bursitisAchilles TendonitisAchilles Tendon Rupture
31 Toe and Foot Conditions Bunions-Hallux Valgus-Condition that is characterized by deviation of the great toe towards the lesser toes.-This results in the development of a bony prominence on the inner aspect of the foot at the base of the great toe.
32 Toe and Foot Conditions Bunions Hallux Rigidus-Due to arthritic degeneration of the 1st MTP Joint which may be very painful, but generally shows little deformity.-Usually a bony prominence but more on top of the big toe joint develops.-Limited range of mobility that occurs due to the arthritis
33 Toe and Foot Conditions Claw Toe-Contracted at the middle and end joints in the toe-Can lead to severe pressure and pain-Ligaments and tendons that have tightened cause your toe's joints to curl downwards.-Claw toes can occur in any toe, except the big toe.
34 Toe and Foot Conditions Hammer Toe-Deformity usually exists in one toe at the proximal inter phalangeal joint PIP-The base of the toe points upward and the end of the toe points down.
35 Toe and Foot Conditions Mallet Toe-Deformity that occurs in the sagittal plane and affects only the distal phalanx.-Usually patients will see a callused area on the end of the toe and top of the last joint (DIP).
36 Toe and Foot Conditions Turf Toe-Occurs after forceful extension of the Great Toe-Causing damage to the ligaments on the plantar surface of the foot.
37 Toe and Foot Conditions Jones Fracture-Occur in the small area of the fifth metatarsal that receives less blood supply and more prone to difficulties in healing.-Jones fractures are caused by overuse, repetitive stress, or trauma. They are less common and more difficult to treat than avulsion fractures.
38 Toe and Foot Conditions Plantar Fasciitis-Occurs when the long fibrous plantar fascia ligament along the bottom of the foot develops tears in the tissue resulting in pain and inflammation
39 Toe and Foot Conditions Morton’s Neuroma-occur in response to irritation, pressure or injury to one of the nerves that lead to your toes.-The growth of thickened nerve tissue (neuroma) is part of your body's response to the irritation or injury.
40 Foot and Ankle Conditions Lateral Ankle Sprain(Inversion)-Most common type of ankle sprain-Occurs when the foot is forced to invert in which you roll over on the outside of your foot.-The Anterior Talofibular Ligament is most commonly involved ligaments in this type of sprain.-90% of ankle sprains are inversion injuries
41 Foot and Ankle Conditions Eversion Ankle Sprain-Significantly Less common- Occurs due to forceful eversion of the foot.Stretching deltoid ligament.
42 Foot and Ankle Conditions Calcaneal Bursitis-Inflammation of the calcaneal bursae-Most commonly caused by repetitive overuse and cumulative trauma, as seen in runners wearing tight-fitting shoes.
43 Foot and Ankle Conditions Achilles Tendonitis-Inflammation of the Achilles Tendon-Most commonly caused by repetitive overuse and cumulative trauma, as seen in runners wearing tight-fitting shoes.
44 Foot and Ankle Conditions Achilles Tendon Rupture-Rupture can occur while performing actions requiring explosive acceleration, such as pushing off or jumping.