2 Muscles Bones require muscles for locomotion Muscles move bone by contracting (shortening)
3 Function of Muscles Produce movement Maintain posture Stabilize joints Generate heat
4 The Muscular SystemMuscles are responsible for all types of body movement – they contract or shorten and are the machine of the bodyThree basic muscle types are found in the bodySmooth muscleCardiac muscleSkeletal muscle
5 There are three types of Muscle: Smooth MuscleLocated in the digestive and reproductive systemUnder Involuntary controlCardiac MuscleFound in the wall of the heartunder Involuntary controlSkeletal MuscleAttached to boneProvide force for moving and stabilizing the bodyUnder Voluntary controlStriated muscle
6 4 Types of Connective Tissue At the joints (where bones meet), there are different types of connective tissue:Ligament – connects bone to boneTendon – connects muscle to boneBursa – fluid filled sac that allows bones to move easily over othersCartilage – connective tissue that cushions the joint at the end of bones and between bones
9 Anatomy of the Muscular System OriginMuscle attachment that remains fixedInsertionMuscle attachment that movesActionWhat joint movement a muscle producesi.e. flexion, extension, abduction, etc.
10 For muscles to create a movement, they can only pull, not push Muscles in the body rarely work alone, & are usually arranged in groups surrounding a jointA muscle that contracts to create the desired action is known as an agonist or prime moverA muscle that helps the agonist is a synergistA muscle that opposes the action of the agonist, therefore undoing the desired action is an antagonist
11 Antagonistic MusclesA pair of muscles which work against each other to make a joint moveThe muscle that contracts to bend the joint is the flexor, and the muscle that contracts to straighten the joint is the extensor
12 Did you know…If you’re double jointed it means that you have extra stretchy ligaments which allows your joints more flexibility
13 MovementMuscles move bones. Muscles are attached to the bone by tendons.When the muscle contracts, it becomes shorter and pulls the tendon which pulls the bone. When the muscle relaxes, the pulling stops.Muscles can only PULL, so they work in pairs. For example, the bicep contracts to pull the lower arm up. When the tricep contracts, your arm straightens.
15 SummaryBones provide the framework of the body, joints allow for movement, and muscles provide the strength to realize the movements. The kind of movement depends on the shape of the bone and in the joint.