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5. Major Brain Structures from the Bottom-Up 4. 3. 2. 1.
Major Brain Structures from the Bottom Up1. Myelencephalon: (Hindbrain) Medulla: the most posterior region of the brain stem. Pyramids: carry signals for voluntary movement from the cortex to the motor circuits of the spinal cord. Olives: nuclei connected to the cerebellum Reticular formation: arousal, sleep attention. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Allyn & Bacon Inc.
2. Metencephalon: (Hindbrain)Cerebellum: coordination of movement Ataxia- jerky inaccurate movement produced by cerebellar damage. Cerebellar peduncles: connect cerebellum to the rest of the brain stem. Pons: nuclei of cranial nerves 5-8. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Allyn & Bacon Inc.
3. Mesencephalon: (Midbrain)Superior colliculi: vision Inferior colliculi: audition Red nuclei: sensorimotor Substantia nigra: sensorimotor Periaqueductal gray: (PAG) pain & defensive behavior Copyright © 2008 Pearson Allyn & Bacon Inc.
4. Diencephalon: (Forebrain)A. Thalamus: sensory relay system to the cortex Lateral geniculate: vision Medial geniculate: audition Ventral posterior: somatosensory Internal lamina: white matter Copyright © 2008 Pearson Allyn & Bacon Inc.
4. Diencephalon: (Forebrain)B. Hypothalamus: motivation Ventromedial nuclei: feeding (missing is lateral hypothalamus) Suprachiasmatic nuclei: biological rhythms Mammillary bodies: emotion Preoptic area: sex Copyright © 2008 Pearson Allyn & Bacon Inc.
Posterior pituitary: innervated by the hypothalamusParaventricular nuclei: a hypothalamic nucleus innervating the posterior pituitary. Supraoptic nuclei: a hypothalamic nucleus innervating the posterior pituitary. Posterior Pituitary Releases: oxytocin & vasopressin. . . Copyright © 2008 Pearson Allyn & Bacon Inc.
Pituitary Gland: Anterior: master glandReleases trophic hormones in response to hypothalamic releasing hormones. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Allyn & Bacon Inc.
5. Telencephalon: (Forebrain)Composed of cortical and Subcortical structures: Basal ganglia (Overall role in control of movement, these structures are located lateral to the thalamus) Caudate (tail-like shape). Putamen: The putamen and caudate together are called the striatum (because their appearance is striped). Parkinson’s disease is produced by degeneration of the caudate and putamen. Globus pallidus. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Allyn & Bacon Inc.
5. Telencephalon: (Forebrain) Subcortical: Limbic System (motivation & emotion) Amygdala (almond shaped) Different nuclei in the amygdale have different connections, and it can be assigned to both the limbic system (Carlson) as well as the basal ganglia. Hippocampus: (seahorse, memory) Cingulate cortex: (pain, depression) Fornix: (fiber bundle: hippocampus - hypothalamus) Septum: (sex) Mammillary bodies: (hypothalamus – pituitary) Copyright © 2008 Pearson Allyn & Bacon Inc.
Telencephalon (Forebrain) Cortical StructuresA. Frontal lobe: motor Premotor context – planning of movement B. Parietal lobe: somatosensory C. Occipital lobe: vision D. Temporal lobe: audition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Allyn & Bacon Inc.
Biopsychology Chapter 3: Structure of the Nervous System
Brain Richard Goldman April 24, 2006 Frontal Lobe Parietal Lobe Thalamus Occipital Lobe Cerebellum Spinal Cord Pons Pituitary Gland Reticular Formation.
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The Last Notes Hi Folks! We’re almost finished now and it looks like we won’t have time for the special senses (gustation, olfaction, vision, balance and.
Organization and Functions of the Nervous System.
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Chapter 14, part 2 The Brain.
Chapter 3 The Anatomy of the Nervous System
Chapter 4 Anatomy of the Nervous System. Structure of the Vertebrate Nervous System Terms used to describe location when referring to the nervous system.
Anatomy of the Central Nervous System
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PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Janice Meeking, Mount Royal College C H A P T E R Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 12 The Central Nervous.
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3: Structure of the Nervous System Biological Bases of Behavior.
Exam 1 Moved to the 31 of January Thebrainmcgill Simple to complex Neurological level Intermediate level Midsagittal view.
Basal Ganglia Part of the motor system: control of voluntary movement Caudate Nucleus Putamen Globus Pallidus Input to caudate and putamen from: Cerebral.
Chapter 8 Human Physiology. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. CNS Consists of: Brain Spinal.
The Five Major Divisions of the Brain. Forebrain Telencephalon Diencephalon Midbrain Mesencephalon Hindbrain Metencephalon Myelencephalon.
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