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Chapter 1 Section II Fundamentals of Information Systems

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1 Chapter 1 Section II Fundamentals of Information Systems
What is a system as it relates to Information Systems? A system is defined as a group of interrelated components working together to achieve a goal by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organized transformation process

2 System Basics Systems (sometimes called dynamic systems) have THREE basic components 1. Inputs- Involves capturing and assembling elements that enter the system to be processed 2. Processing- Transformation from input to output

3 Cont. 3. Output- Delivery of inputs that have been transformed into useable information to the desired user or destination

4 Feedback and Control Cybernetic system- A system that is self-monitoring and self-regulating Feedback- Information or data about the performance of the system Control- Monitoring and evaluation of feedback data and the ability to make adjustments if the system is not performing as designed

5 Additional System Characteristics
Subsystem: A part of an entire system System Boundary: Separation point between systems Interface: Common access point for many systems Open System: A system that operates with other systems in its environment

6 Cont. Adaptive System: A system with the ability to change itself

7 Information System Components
People Hardware Software Network Data These are the five elements that must be present in all information systems

8 People Two types End users- People who use information systems to complete work or tasks Information Systems specialists- People who design and develop information systems

9 Hardware Defined as the physical resources used in an information system Machines- Physical devices such as computers, monitors, modems, keyboards Media- Hard copies of data (diskettes, Compact Discs, magnetic tape, paper)

10 Software Programs- An organized set of instructions that tell the computer to perform tasks Procedures- Instruction sets for users to complete tasks Examples: Operating Systems (control file access) Applications software (Microsoft Word)

11 Network Resources Telecommunications networks (connection between two or more hardware resources) Two types of network resources Communications media (wire, cable, infrared, radio frequency, fiber optic) Network support (include all elements of information system and special software for networking)

12 Data Resources Typically two types of data resources
Databases- organized collection of data Knowledge bases- collection of information about data, procedures, business rules

13 Data Vs. Information Data is a raw fact or observation about something
Information is processed data that is meaningful and useful for users.

14 Flow of an Information System
Input of data resource Processing of data into information Output of information Data storage Evaluation and control of system performance

15 Trends in Information Systems
Figure 1.24 (page 31) Different eras have led us in a circle

16 Basic form of Information Systems
Two main classifications Operations Support Systems- Used to process information used in general business (functional, operational, etc) Management Support Systems- Focus on the information needs of managers to plan, organize, direct, and control a business

17 Operation Support Systems
Transaction Processing Systems - process data generated daily, etc., according to the business Batch Processing - Data processed after a specified amount of time has passed Realtime or Online Processing - Immediate processing of data

18 OSS cont. Process Control Systems - Systems that automate and monitor a process (oil refinery, energy management) Enterprise collaboration - Work getting completed because of enabling systems

19 Management Support Systems
Provide information for managerial decision making Strategic - Top level management Tactical - Middle level management Operating - Supervisory or front line management

20 MIS concept Vital for effective and efficient information systems
Management orientation - support of managerial decision making Systems framework - Should be used for organizing information systems. Applications should be interrelated and integrated

21 Major forms of Management Information Systems
Decision Support Systems Executive Support Systems Expert Systems Artificial Intelligence Knowledge Management Strategic Information Systems

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