Why study Information Systems and Information Technology?
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Presentation on theme: "Why study Information Systems and Information Technology?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Why study Information Systems and Information Technology? Vital component of successful businessesHelps businesses expand and competeBusinesses use IS and ITTo improve efficiency and effectiveness of business processesFor managerial decision makingFor workgroup collaborationYou might just as well ask why study accounting, finance, operations management, marketing, human resources, management.Most business majors include a class in IS.
2 What is an Information System? An organized combination ofPeopleHardwareSoftwareCommunications networksData resourcesPolicies and proceduresThat stores, retrieves, transforms, and disseminates information in an organizationThis is a simple definition that we will expand upon laterWhat’s an example?Smoke signals to transmit informationCard catalogs in a libraryBook bag with day planner, notebooks, that allows you organize inputs from lectures, presentations and discussions. The output is homework and good exam gradesCash register at restaurantOther examples?
3 Information System (IS) versus Information Technology (IT) IS is all the components and resources necessary to deliver information and functions to the organizationIT is hardware, software, networking and data managementDefinition of IS from prior slide:An organized combination ofPeopleHardwareSoftwareCommunications networksData resourcesPolicies and proceduresThat stores, retrieves, transforms, and disseminates information in an organizationIn theory, an IS could be pencil and paper based
4 What should a Business Professional know about IS? Foundation Concepts: fundamental behavioral, technical, business and managerial conceptsInformation Technology: Hardware, software, networks, data management and Internet-based technologyBusiness Applications: Major uses of the IS in the organizationDevelopment Processes: How to plan, develop and implement IS to meet business opportunitiesManagement Challenges: The challenges of effectively and ethically managing ITRefers back to figure 1.2 on prior slideFoundation Concepts: Examples: general systems theory, competitive strategies. Covered in chapters 1, 2Information Technology: Covered in chapters 3-6Business Applications: Chapter 7: applications in functional areas, Chapter 8: electronic commerce applications and Chapter 9: decision makingDevelopment Processes: By both business professionals and IS specialists. Chapter 10.Management Challenges: Managing IT at the end user, enterprise and global levels of a business. Chapter 11 is security challenges and Chapter 12 is how to manage IT in global businesses.
5 What does IS do for a business? Examples of business processes: record purchases, track inventory, pay employees, etc. Business would stop without such IS.Examples of decision making: what lines of merchandise need to be added, what kind of investment required.Examples of competitive advantage: put kiosk in store to connect to e-commerce website. Help gain advantage over competitor without such a kiosk.
6 What is E-business? The use of Internet technologies to work and empower business processes, electronic commerce, and enterprise collaborationwithin a company and with its customers, suppliers, and other business stakeholders.An online exchange of value.
7 Types of Operations Support Systems Transaction Processing SystemsRecord and process data from business transactionsExamples: sales processing, inventory systems, accounting systemsProcess Control SystemsMonitor and control physical processesExample: in a petroleum refinery use sensors to monitor chemical processesEnterprise Collaboration SystemsEnhance team and work group communicationsExamples: , videoconferencing
8 Types of Management Support Systems Management Information Systems (MIS)Provide reports and displays to managersExample: daily sales analysis reportsDecision Support Systems (DSS)Provide interactive ad hoc support for decision makingExample: A what-if-analysis to determine where to spend advertising dollarsExecutive Information Systems (EIS)Provide critical information for executives and managersExample: easy access to actions of competitors
9 Operational or Management Systems Expert SystemsProvide expert adviceExample: credit application advisorKnowledge Management SystemsSupport creation, organization and dissemination of business knowledge throughout companyExample: Intranet access to best business practicesSupport either operations or management applications
10 IT CareersOutsourcing of basic programming to India, the Middle-East and Asia-Pacific countriesStrong employment opportunities in other areas in ISShortage of qualified IS personnelLong-term job outlook positive and exciting
11 Job growth Among the fastest growing occupations through 2012 Systems Analyst,Database administrators,Other managerial-level positionsNetwork specialistsInformation security
12 What is a system? A system Is a set of interrelated components With a clearly defined boundaryWorking together to achieve a common set of objectivesBy accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organized transformation processRepeating definition from earlier but adding accepting inputs, producing outputs, and transformation
13 Systems have three basic functions: Input involves capturing and assembling elements that enter the system to be processedProcessing involves transformation process that convert input into outputOutput involves transferring elements that have been produced by the transformation process to their ultimate destination
14 Cybernetic system All systems have input, processing and output A cybernetic system, a self-monitoring, self-regulating system, adds feedback and control:Feedback is data about the performance of a systemControl involves monitoring and evaluating feedback to determine whether a system is moving towards the achievement of its goal
15 Information systems model Major components of an information: people, hardware, software, data and networks.These components perform input, processing, output, storage, and control activities.
16 A business as a systemA business can be viewed as a system. This system does not operate in a vacuum rather it functions in an environment containing other systems. A business is an open system in that it interacts with other systems in the environment. It is also an adaptive system in that it can change itself or its environment in order to survive.