Presentation on theme: "Capital Adequacy Chapter 20"— Presentation transcript:
1 Capital Adequacy Chapter 20 Financial Institutions Management, 3/eBy Anthony Saunders
2 Importance of Capital Adequacy Preserve confidence in the FIProtect uninsured depositorsProtect FI insurance funds and taxpayersTo acquire real investments in order to provide financial services
3 Cost of Equity P0 /E0 = (D0/E0)(1+g)/(k-g) P0 = D1/(1+k) + D2/(1+k)2 +…Or if growth is constant,P0 = D0(1+g)/(k-g)May be expressed in terms of P/E ratio asP0 /E0 = (D0/E0)(1+g)/(k-g)
4 Capital and Insolvency Risk net worthbook valueMarket value of capitalcredit riskinterest rate risk
5 Capital and Insolvency Risk (continued) Book value of capitalpar value of sharessurplus value of sharesretained earningsloan loss reserveCredit riskInterest rate risk
6 Discrepancy Between Market and Book Values Factors underlying discrepancies:interest rate volatilityexamination and enforcementMarket value accountingmarket to bookarguments against market value accounting
7 Capital Adequacy in Commercial Banking and Thrifts Actual capital rulesCapital-assets ratio (Leverage ratio)L = Core capital/Assets5 categories associated with set of mandatory and discretionary actionsPrompt corrective action
8 Leverage Ratio Problems with leverage ratio: Market value: may not be adequately reflected by leverage ratioAsset risk: ratio fails to reflect differences in credit and interest rate risksOff-balance-sheet activities: escape capital requirements in spite of attendant risks
9 Risk-based Capital Ratios Basle agreementEnforced alongside traditional leverage ratioMinimum requirement of 8% total capital (Tier I core plus Tier II supplementary capital) to risk-adjusted assets ratio.Also, Tier I (core) capital ratio= Core capital (Tier I) / Risk-adjusted assets must meet minimum of 4%.Crudely mark to market on- and off-balance sheet positions.
10 Calculating Risk-based Capital Ratios Tier I includes:book value of common equity, plus perpetual preferred stock, plus minority interests of the bank held in subsidiaries, minus goodwill.Tier II includes:loan loss reserves (up to maximum of 1.25% of risk-adjusted assets) plus various convertible and subordinated debt instruments with maximum caps
11 Calculating Risk-based Capital Ratios Risk-adjusted assets:Risk-adjusted assets = Risk-adjusted on-balance-sheet assets + Risk-adjusted off-balance-sheet assetsRisk-adjusted on-balance-sheet assetsAssets assigned to one of four categories of credit risk exposure.Risk-adjusted value of on-balance-sheet assets equals the weighted sum of the book values of the assets, where weights correspond to the risk category.
12 Risk-adjusted Off-balance-sheet Activities Off-balance-sheet contingent guaranty contractsConversion factors used to convert into credit equivalent amounts—amounts equivalent to an on-balance-sheet item. Conversion factors used depend on the guaranty type.Two-step process:Derive credit equivalent amounts as product of face value and conversion factor.Multiply credit equivalent amounts by appropriate risk weights (dependent on underlying counterparty)
13 Risk-adjusted Off-balance-sheet Activities Off-balance-sheet market contracts or derivative instruments:Issue is counterparty credit riskBasically a two-step process:Conversion factor used to convert to credit equivalent amounts.Second, multiply credit equivalent amounts by appropriate risk weights.Credit equivalent amount divided into potential and current exposure elements.
14 Credit Equivalent Amounts of Derivative Instruments Credit equivalent amount of OBS derivative security items = Potential exposure + Current exposurePotential exposure: credit risk if counterparty defaults in the future.Current exposure: Cost of replacing a derivative securities contract at today’s prices.Risk-adjusted asset value of OBS market contracts = Total credit equivalent amount × risk weight.
15 Risk-adjusted Asset Value of OBS Derivatives With Netting With netting, total credit equivalent amount equals net current exposure + net potential exposure.Net current exposure = sum of all positive and negative replacement costs.If the sum is positive, then net current exposure equals the sum.If negative, net current exposure equals zero.Anet = (0.4 × Agross ) + (0.6 × NGR × Agross )
16 Interest Rate Risk, Market Risk, and Risk-based Capital Risk-based capital ratio is adequate as long as the bank is not exposed to:undue interest rate riskmarket risk
17 Criticisms of Risk-based Capital Ratio Risk weight categories may not closely reflect true credit risk.Balance sheet incentive problems.Portfolio aspects: Ignores credit risk portfolio diversification opportunities.Reduces incentives for banks to make loans.
18 Criticisms (continued) All commercial loans have equal weight.Ignores other risks such as FX risk, asset concentration and operating risk.Adversely affects competitiveness.
19 Capital Requirements for Other FIs Securities firmsBroker-dealers:Net worth / total assets ratio must be no less than 2% calculated on a day-to-day market value basis.
20 Capital Requirements (continued) Life insuranceC1 = Asset riskC2 = insurance riskC3 = interest rate riskC4 = Business risk
21 Capital Requirements (continued) Risk-based capital measure for life insurance companies:RBC = [ (C1 + C3)2 + C22] 1/2 + C4If(Total surplus and capital) / (RBC) < 1.0,then subject to regulatory scrutiny.
22 Capital Requirements (continued) Property and Casualty insurance companiessimilar to life insurance capital requirements.Six (instead of four) risk categories