2 HydrocarbonsGasoline, diesel fuel, and kerosene are examples of liquid fuels. A solid fuel, coal, produced the steam for the locomotives that pulled old-time trains. These fuels are mixtures of compounds called hydrocarbons. You will learn about the structure and properties of hydrocarbons.
3 Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons How is the number of valence electrons in carbon atoms related to the bonds that carbon atoms form?
4 Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons Because carbon has four valence electrons, a carbon atom always forms four covalent bonds.The simplest organic compounds contain only carbon and hydrogen and are called hydrocarbons.
5 Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons One carbon atom can form a single covalent bond with four hydrogen atoms.
6 Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons Animation 28Get a glimpse of the staggering variety of hydrocarbon compounds.
7 Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons Formulas and Models for Methane and EthaneBall-and-stick modelSpace-filling modelDifferent types of formulas and models can be used to represent hydrocarbons such as methane and ethane. Interpreting Diagrams What does a stick in a ball-and-stick model represent?
8 AlkanesAlkanesWhat are two possible arrangements of carbon atoms in an alkane?
9 AlkanesAn alkane is a hydrocarbon in which there are only single covalent bonds.The carbon atoms in an alkane can be arranged in a straight chain or in a chain that has branches.
10 Straight-Chain Alkanes Ethane is the simplest of the straight-chain alkanes, which contain any number of carbon atoms, one after the other, in a chain.
11 AlkanesA group of compounds forms a homologous series if there is a constant increment of change in molecular structure from one compound in the series to the next.
12 Hydrocarbons are used as fuels. AlkanesHydrocarbons are used as fuels.Hydrocarbons are used as fuels. a) Pressurized tanks of propane are used to fuel the burners in hot-air balloons. b) Butane serves as the fuel for many lighters.
13 AlkanesIn a condensed structural formula, some bonds and/or atoms are left out of the structural formula. Although the bonds and atoms do not appear, they are there.
18 for Conceptual Problem 22.1 Problem Solving 22.1 Solve Problem 1 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial.
19 Branched-Chain Alkanes An atom or group of atoms that can take the place of a hydrogen atom on a parent hydrocarbon molecule is called a substituent.
20 A hydrocarbon substituent is called an alkyl group. AlkanesA hydrocarbon substituent is called an alkyl group.An alkane with one or more alkyl groups is called a branched-chain alkane.
21 AlkanesBall-and-stick and space-filling models show the arrangement of atoms in 4-ethyl-2,3- dimethylheptane.Ball-and-stick and space-filling models show the arrangement of atoms in 4-ethyl-2,3-dimethylheptane. Interpreting Diagrams Based on the ball-and-stick model, how many carbons are there in the longest straight chain?
29 for Conceptual Problem 22.3 Problem Solving 22.5 Solve Problem 5 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial.
30 Properties of AlkanesProperties of AlkanesIn terms of their polarity, what type of molecules are alkanes?
31 Molecules of hydrocarbons, such as alkanes, are nonpolar molecules. Properties of AlkanesMolecules of hydrocarbons, such as alkanes, are nonpolar molecules.The nonpolar molecules in the oil spill are not attracted to the polar water molecules in the ocean.
33 22.1 Section Quiz.1. Choose the correct words for the spaces. Because carbon has ______ valence electrons, it can form ______________ bonds.four, four covalentfour, four ionicsix, six covalentsix, four or fewer covalent
34 22.1 Section Quiz.2. Alkanes are hydrocarbons that contain only ___________ bonds.carbon-carbonsingle covalentcarbon-hydrogenionic
35 22.1 Section Quiz3. Choose the correct words for the spaces. Hydrocarbons are highly soluble in _______ solvents because they are ________ molecules.nonpolar, nonpolarnonpolar, polarpolar, nonpolarpolar, polar