2 Alkanes aliphatic hydrocarbons having C—C and C—H bonds. Acyclic alkanesmolecular formula CnH2n+2contain only linear and branched chains of carbon atoms.Saturated hydrocarbons -- have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms per carbon.Cycloalkanescarbons joined in one or more rings.molecular formula CnH2nhave two fewer H atoms than an acyclic alkane with the same number of carbons.
3 All C atoms in an alkane are surrounded by four groups sp3 hybridizedTetrahedral (all bond angles are )
4 In a Lewis structure, the bends in a carbon chain don’t matter. In propane and higher molecular weight alkanes, the carbon skeleton can be drawn in a variety of ways and still represent the same molecule.In a Lewis structure, the bends in a carbon chain don’t matter.
5 There are two different ways to arrange four carbons, giving two compounds with molecular formula C4H10.Butane and isobutane are constitutional isomers (different compounds with the same molecular formula. )Constitutional isomers differ in the way the atoms are connected to each other.
6 Carbon atoms in alkanes and other organic compounds are classified by the number of other carbons directly bonded to them.
7 Hydrogen atoms are classified as primary (10), secondary (20), or tertiary (30) depending on the type of carbon atom to which they are bonded.
8 The maximum number of possible constitutional isomers increases dramatically as the number of carbon atoms in the alkane increases.75 possible isomers for 10 carbons366,319 possible isomers for 20 carbons.The suffix “ane” identifies a molecule as an alkane.By increasing the number of carbons in an alkane by a CH2 group (“methylene”) , one obtains a “homologous series” of alkanes.
10 Cycloalkanes have molecular formula CnH2n and contain carbon atoms arranged in a ring. Simple cycloalkanes are named by adding the prefix cyclo- to the name of the acyclic alkane having the same number of carbons.
11 Nomenclature The name of every organic molecule has 3 parts: The parent name indicates the number of carbons in the longest continuous chainThe suffix indicates what functional group is presentThe prefix tells us the identity, location, and number of substituents attached to the carbon chain
12 NomenclatureCarbon substituents bonded to a long carbon chain are called alkyl groups.An alkyl group is formed by removing one H atom from an alkane.To name an alkyl group, change the –ane ending of the parent alkane to –yl.methane (CH4) becomes methyl (CH3-)ethane (CH3CH3) becomes ethyl (CH3CH2-).
13 Naming three- or four-carbon alkyl groups is more complicated because the parent hydrocarbons have more than one type of hydrogen atom.Propane has both 10 and 20 H atoms, and removal of each of these H atoms forms a different alkyl group with a different name.
14 Rules for Naming Alkanes 1. Find the parent carbon chain and add the suffix.It does not matter if the chain is straight or it bends.
15 If there are two chains of equal length, pick the chain with greater number of substituents.
16 2. Number the atoms in the carbon chain to give the first substituent the lowest number.
17 If the first substituent is the same distance from both ends, number the chain to give the second substituent the lower number.
18 When numbering a carbon chain results in the same numbers from either end of the chain, assign the lower number alphabetically to the first substituent.
19 3. Name and number the substituents. Name the substituents as alkyl groups.Every carbon belongs to either the longest chain or a substituent, not both.Each substituent needs its own numberIf two or more identical substituents are bonded to the longest chain, use prefixes to indicate how many: di- for two groups, tri- for three groups, tetra- for four groups, and so forth.
20 4. Combine substituent names and numbers + parent and suffix. Precede the name of the parent by the names of the substituents.Alphabetize the names of the substituents, ignoring all prefixes except iso, as in isopropyl and isobutyl.Precede the name of each substituent by the number that indicates its location.Separate numbers by commas and separate numbers from letters by hyphens. The name of an alkane is a single word, with no spaces after hyphens and commas.
21 Cycloalkanes are named by using similar rules, but the prefix cyclo- immediately precedes the name of the parent.1. Find the parent cycloalkane.
22 2. Name and number the substituents 2. Name and number the substituents. No number is needed to indicate the location of a single substituent.For rings with more than one substituent, begin numbering at one substituent and proceed around the ring to give the second substituent the lowest number.
23 With two different substituents, number the ring to assign the lower number to the substituents alphabetically.In the case of an alkane composed of both a ring and a long chain. If the number of carbons in the ring is greater than or equal to the number of carbons in the longest chain, the compound is named as a cycloalkane.
28 Fossil Fuels:Many alkanes occur in nature, primarily in natural gas and petroleum.Natural gas is com-posed largely of methane, with lesser amounts of ethane, propane and butane.Petroleum is a complex mixture of compounds, most of which are hydrocarbons containing one to forty carbon atoms. Distilling crude petroleum (called refining), separates it into usable fractions that differ in boiling point.gasoline: C5H12—C12H26kerosene: C12H26—C16H34diesel fuel: C15H32—C18H38
29 Fossil Fuels:Figure 4.5 Refining crude petroleum into usable fuel and other petroleum products. (a) An oil refinery. At an oil refinery, crude petroleum is separated into fractions of similar boiling point by the process of distillation. (b) Schematic of a refinery tower. As crude petroleum is heated, the lower-boiling, more volatile components distill first, followed by fractions of progressively higher boiling point.