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End of War – Treaty of Versailles

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1 End of War – Treaty of Versailles

2 The Big Four Big Four – name given to the group of leaders from the four main allies in Europe and U.S. Big Four Members Woodrow Wilson – U.S. President George Clemenceau – French leader David Lloyd George – British Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando – Italian leader

3 Differing Terms to Peace
French – wanted Germany to pay for war even if it meant hurting Germany long term British – wanted Germany to be punished but not destroyed Italy – wanted territory for itself U.S. – wanted the Fourteen Points passed, but other Allies felt that the terms were not hard enough Fourteen Points – Woodrow Wilson’s plan for peace in Europe which included forming a League of Nations

4 The Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles – ends World War I and brought Germany to its knees – signed by Germans on June 28, 1919 Components of treaty: Germany pays all countries for war costs Germany responsible for war entirely Limit size of German military Germany return conquered lands to France and Russia German land taken to form new nation of Poland German colonies given to other world powers Made Weimar Republic (set up by French) permanent Established League of Nations – Germany not included

5 Effects of the Treaty of Versailles
Germany was humiliated – furious over treaty Creates more hatred for the Allies War debt payments causes Germany to enter a Depression Economy is destroyed and they have no ability to make money as all their industrial regions and resources were taken away Allowed for the rise of radical politics in Germany The Nazi Party will become popular Nazi Party will be led by a young World War I veteran named Adolf Hitler

6 U.S. Reaction to the Treaty
American government would not ratify treaty and Woodrow Wilson did not like the terms Effects: U.S. will try to help Germany with war debt Will lead to us entering a depression U.S. will not enter League of Nations – fear of getting them involved in another war League will have little to no power and not meet its mission

7 Other Nations, Other Treaties
Treaties were made with all nations involved in war Effects of other Treaties: Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary were broken apart forming new nations of Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and Turkey Ottoman lands in Middle East turned into mandates Mandates – territories to be ruled by European powers British control of Palestine led to passage of Balfour Declaration – create a Jewish state in Palestine (first step in forming Israel) Mandates became colonies – angered Middle Easterners

8 Cost of War Human Cost: Nearly 9,000,000 soldiers killed
Millions more wounded Nearly an entire generation of young men in Germany, France, and Russia were wiped out All made worse by the Spanish Influenza of 1918 which killed nearly 50,000,000 globally

9 Cost of War Economic Cost: Destroyed national economies
France, Belgium, and Russia saw their farmlands destroyed by fighting Cities and industry were destroyed as well Led to widespread chaos – Great Depression Europe no longer dominant economic region of world U.S. and Japan made a fortune of war as nations turned to them to buy goods

10 Cost of War Political Changes: Colonial Changes:
Communist Revolution in Russia – Czar gone Monarchies in Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Ottoman Empire were all overthrown Rise of radical parties in Europe and globally Nazi Party Europe becomes filled with hate following war Colonial Changes: Colonists wanted freedom because of sacrifice made in war, but that freedom did not come Europeans begin fighting wars in their colonies to put down rebellion

11 Question Slide 1 of 2 What men and nations made up Big Four?
What were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles? Which of the Fourteen Points made it into the Treaty? What were the effects of the treaty? How did the U.S. react to the Treaty? What happened to the Ottoman Empire and Austrian-Hungarian Empire?

12 Question Slide 2 of 2 What new nations were formed after World War I?
What were the costs of World War I? (Human, Economic, Political, and Colonial Changes)

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