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Sedimentary Rocks Bits and Pieces. Sedimentary rocks form as sediment is: Deposited Buried Compacted Cemented.

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Presentation on theme: "Sedimentary Rocks Bits and Pieces. Sedimentary rocks form as sediment is: Deposited Buried Compacted Cemented."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sedimentary Rocks Bits and Pieces

2 Sedimentary rocks form as sediment is: Deposited Buried Compacted Cemented

3 Sedimentary rocks fall into 3 groups: Clastic/inorganic Organic Chemical

4 Physical Weathering Clastic sediments are produced when rock physically weathers, which means it breaks apart. Big rocks break into smaller rocks. Weathering is an extremely slow process.

5 There are 6 sizes of clastic sediments. Boulders Cobbles Pebbles Sand Silt Clay

6 Particles are collected and transported by running water. watch? watch?v=fATA1SOLICo

7 Abrasion Sediments become smoothed and rounded as they bounce along the bottom of the stream and hit against each other.

8 Deposition and Sorting A stream loses velocity when entering quiet waters so its ability to transport sediment decreases. Particles drop to the bottom. This is deposition. Large particles settle first. Other particles settle according to size. Smallest particles last. This is sorting.

9 Burial and Compaction As more sediments accumulate, the bottom ones are buried. This increased weight of the top sediments physically squeezes the lower sediments together which compacts them. Heavy Weight OUCH!

10 Cementation All the waters of the Earth contain dissolved minerals. These dissolved minerals and sometimes clay fill up spaces between the rock fragments and bind them together. This is cementation.

11 Stratification Sedimentary rocks often form in horizontal layers called strata.

12 Fossils These layers or strata often contain fossils. Only sedimentary rocks contain fossils.

13 Fossil Structures Mud cracks and ripple marks give evidence of environment at formation.

14 Organic(Bioclastic)Sediments The remains of plants and animals. The two most common are shells and plant material.

15 Chemical Sediments Chemical sediments form when water evaporates and the materials dissolved in the water precipitate (settle).

16 Bonneville Salt Flats Home of the land speed record. Thrust SSC – 763 mph

17 Yucca Mountain Nuclear waste depository

18 Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks are the most common type of rocks on Earth’s surface. Sedimentary rocks usually form underwater. Sedimentary rocks may contain fossils. Sedimentary rocks often form in layers or strata. Sedimentary rocks are our keys to the past.

19 Nature’s Palette Antelope Canyon

20 Bryce Canyon

21 Mexican Hat

22 Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Breccia – angular Conglomerate - rounded

23 Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Sandstone – can be various size grains.

24 Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Siltstone

25 Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Shale – breaks along bedded planes.

26 Bioclastic Sedimentary Rocks Bituminous coal – plant remains = carbon

27 Bioclastic Sedimentary Rocks Limestone – cemented shell fragments or precipitates of biologic origin = calcite

28 Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Rock salt - Crystalline texture composed of halite.

29 Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Dolostone – Crystalline texture composed of dolomite. Fossil

30 Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Rock Gypsum – Crystalline texture composed of gypsum.

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