Sedimentary Rocks Identification Note: Use the same terms to describe sediments & sedimentary rocks. Only difference is lithification!
Rock Identification is based on: Composition What minerals make up the rock? Texture What is the shape, size and orientation of the mineral grains that make up the rock? Major Difference: Crystalline vs. Clastic
Types of Sedimentary Rocks Clastic RocksChemical Rocks vs.
Difference: Texture Clastic Texture vs. Chemical (Crystalline Texture)
Compacted and cemented from detrital sediments Formation processes: Transportation, deposition, compaction, and cementation Fossil-fuel bearing rocks Classified based on particle size Shale: The most abundant clastic rocks Clastic Sedimentary Rocks (Keynotes )
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks (Names based primarily on composition) Basic Rock Name Limestone Chert Rock Salt Rock Gypsum Peat or Coal Composition Calcite Quartz (silica) Halite Gypsum “Carbon” / Plant Remains
Chemical Rocks (Names based mainly on composition) Limestones Crystalline Limestone Chalk Fossiliferous Limestone
Chemical Rocks (cont.) Evaportites Rock Gypsum Rock Salt Coal Chert
Precipitated from chemical solutions and/or accumulated chemical, biological matter Classified based on composition and texture :Limestone: The most abundant nonclastic sedimentary rocks Common texture: Crystalline, microcrystalline, skeletal, oolitic, massive Chemical Sedimentary Rocks (Keynotes)