2 14.1 While You Read: Water in the Ground Explain the different ways groundwater can reach the surface of the earth. Give two ways that occur naturally and two ways that occur because of human activity.Humans can dig into the ground until groundwater is reached, forming an ordinary well. Wells can also be drilled into artesian formations to make artesian wells.Where the water table meets the surface, groundwater can flow out as a spring. When cracks occur in the cap of an artesian formation, artesian or fissure springs can rise through the cracks. Groundwater can be heated deep in the Earth closer to the surface in areas of recent volcanic activity. The heated water may rise to the surface as a boiling hot springs or as a geyser, or in the form of steam in a fumarole.
3 14.1 After You ReadType of rock or soil, climate, topography, vegetation, land use, whether land is saturated.Water that is stored in the ground.The amount of pore space between the grains of soil or rock.Particle shape and sortingThe rate at which liquids pass through the pore spaces of rock.Grain size, whether or not pores are connected, presence or absence of capillary water.
4 14.2 Conserving Groundwater Water tabledeficitsubsidencepondssalt waterseeps into aquiferStructuresreplenishing suppliespumped underground
5 14.3 Groundwater and Geology Complete the graphic organizer below with the correct terms from the list: cavern, karst topography, mineral spring, mineral deposits, Saratoga Springs, N.Y., Mammoth Cave region of Kentucky, geyserite, stalagmites and stalactitesKarst topography,Mammoth Cave region of KentuckyMineral spring, Saratoga Springs, N.Y.Mineral deposits, geyseriteCavern, stalagmites and stalactites
6 14.3 After You ReadIdentify some features you would find in an area that has karst topography. Sinkholes, sinkhole ponds, lost river, underground drainage