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Ch 16 Groundwater.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 16 Groundwater."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 16 Groundwater

2 Ground water: H2O beneath the Earth’s surface
Aquifer: rock or sediment that stores ground water

3 Porosity: empty space in a rock
Permeability: water passes through Sandstone -- highly permeable -- large grains Limestone -- low permeability---- pores are NOT connected

4 Clay -------impermeable.

5 Zones of Aquifers: A) Zone of Saturation: area in which pore space is completely filled with water B) Zone of Aeration: upper surface of ground water which has lots of pores for air and tiny animals

6 Water Table: upper boundary of the zone of saturation
Illustrate on the board

7 Depth of the water table depends on:
A) how much water humans use B) amount of rainfall C) permeability of aquifer D) surface topography Pollution has NO effect on the depth of table

8 Water table is high in heavy rainfall
Water table is low in times of drought

9 Special features of ground water:
A) artesian well: a sloping layer of permeable sandwiched between 2 layers of impermeable rock

10 B)Ordinary springs: occur when the ground surface drops below the water table
C) Hot springs: hot groundwater of at least 37oC that rises to surface. As it cools, minerals are deposited along the edge

11 D) mudpots: hot water in a sticky muddy depression. (Yellowstone )
E) Geysers: hot springs that stay below ground and form steam. The hot water forms steam which produces enough pressure that it blows up

12 Chemical Weathering: cause for mineral build up in ground water
Chemical Weathering: cause for mineral build up in ground water. This produces: Hard water: water with minerals Valley and Ridge has hard water from the Ca in limestone Hard water will damage pipes and appliances

13 Karst topography: area that chemical weathering has eat away large sections of bedrock. Valley and Ridge of Va Because all of the “holes” in rock, polluted groundwater can travel a long way from a pollution sight

14 Non-point pollution sight:
fertilizer from a pasture or field runs into a stream after a heavy rain Point pollution sight: a factory dumps waste water into a river through a pipe

15 Features of Karst Topography: 1) Caves:
A) stalagmites: build up at the bottom of a cave. They form as the water filled with carbonate from limestone makes a “Hill” B) stalactites: build from the top, as carbonate filled water drips from the ceiling of cave

16 2) sinkholes: circular depression under surface as rock dissolves
3) natural bridges: an uncollapsed rock between sinkholes 4) Caverns: deep underground holes

17 Soft water---low mineral content
It will form suds easier and does less damage to household items

18 Page Page 413 graphs

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