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SUN TRACKING SOLAR PANEL. Introduction The main objective of this project is to track the sun and rotate the solar panel accordingly, to receive sunlight.

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Presentation on theme: "SUN TRACKING SOLAR PANEL. Introduction The main objective of this project is to track the sun and rotate the solar panel accordingly, to receive sunlight."— Presentation transcript:


2 Introduction The main objective of this project is to track the sun and rotate the solar panel accordingly, to receive sunlight to the fullest extent always during the day time. This movement is achieved by interfacing a stepper motor to the solar panel that changes its direction according to the positioning of the sun. This is achieved using time reference that controls the movement time for 12 hours by a program written in such a way that for every given time the solar panel faces to the sun to generate maximum power which is stored in batteries and future use.

3 EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Definition for :- EMBEDDED SYSTEMS  A combination of hardware and software which together form a component of a larger machine.  An example of an embedded system is a microprocessor that controls an automobile engine.  An embedded system is designed to run on its own without human intervention, and may be required to respond to events in real time.


5 Contents Introduction Block diagram Hardware requirements Power supply Microcontroller (at89s52/at89c51) ULN2003 STEPPER MOTOR Schematic diagram Working of the project Advantages Applications Conclusion



8 Hardware Components description 1. 230 V AC 50 Hz 12V step down transformer 2. Using In4007 as Bridge rectifier 3. Capacitors Filter(470µf ) 4. 5v Regulator 5. Relay

9 6. Push Buttons

10 10. LED 9. RESISTOR

11 11. Capacitor

12 Power supply

13 Description of power supply  The circuit uses standard power supply comprising of a step-down transformer from 230v to 12v and 4 diodes forming a Bridge Rectifier that delivers pulsating dc which is then filtered by an electrolytic capacitor of about 470microf to 100microF.  The filtered dc being un regulated IC LM7805 is used to get 5v constant at its pin no 3 irrespective of input dc varying from 9v to 14v.  The regulated 5volts dc is further filtered by a small electrolytic capacitor of 10 micro f for any noise so generated by the circuit.  One LED is connected of this 5v point in series with a resistor of 330ohms to the ground i.e. negative voltage to indicate 5v power supply availability.

14 Block diagram of mc CPU On-chip RAM On-chip ROM for program code 4 I/O Ports Timer 0 Serial Port OSC Interrup t Control External interrupts Timer 1 Timer/Counter Bus Control TxD RxD P0 P1 P2 P3 Address/Data Counter Inputs

15 Microcontroller(AT89S52) Compatible with MCS®-51 Products 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory – Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz Three-level Program Memory Lock 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM 32 Programmable I/O Lines Three 16-bit Timer/Counters Eight Interrupt Sources Full Duplex UART Serial Channel Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode Watchdog Timer Dual Data Pointer o Fast Programming Time


17 Relay driver uln2003 ULN is Relay driver application The ULN2003 is a monolithic high voltage and high current Darlington transistor arrays. It consists of seven NPN Darlington pairs that features high-voltage outputs with common- cathode clamp diode for switching inductive loads. The collector-current rating of a single Darlington pair is 500mA. The Darlington pairs may be paralleled for higher current capability.

18 Contd.. The ULN functions as an inverter. If the logic at input 1B is high then the output at its corresponding pin 1C will be low.

19 MOTOR STEPPER MOTOR A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brushless synchronous electric motor that can divide a full rotation into a large number of steps. Stepper motors operate differently from DC brush motors Stepper motors, on the other hand, effectively have multiple "toothed" electromagnets arranged around a central gear-shaped piece of iron. To make the motor shaft turn, first one electromagnet is given power, which makes the gear's teeth magnetically attracted to the electromagnet's teeth. So when the next electromagnet is turned on and the first is turned off, the gear rotates slightly to align with the next one, and from there the process is repeated.


21 Software requirements Keil an ARM Company makes C compilers, macro assemblers, real-time kernels, debuggers, simulators, integrated environments, evaluation boards, and emulators for ARM7/ARM9/Cortex-M3, XC16x/C16x/ST10, 251, and 8051 MCU families. Compilers are programs used to convert a High Level Language to object code. Desktop compilers produce an output object code for the underlying microprocessor, but not for other microprocessors.

22 Contd.. i.e., the programs written in one of the HLL like ‘C’ will compile the code to run on the system for a particular processor like x86 (underlying microprocessor in the computer). For example compilers for Dos platform is different from the Compilers for Unix platform So if one wants to define a compiler then compiler is a program that translates source code into object code.

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