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Overview of Electronic CommerceChapter 1 Overview of Electronic Commerce © Prentice Hall 2004
Learning Objectives Define electronic commerce (EC) and describe its various categories. Describe and discuss the content and framework of EC. Describe the major types of EC transactions. Describe some EC business models. © Prentice Hall 2004
Learning Objectives (cont.)Describe the benefits of EC to organizations, consumers, and society. Describe the limitations of EC. Describe the role of the digital revolution in EC. Describe the contribution of EC to organizations responding to environmental pressures. © Prentice Hall 2004
Marks & Spencer—A New Way to CompeteThe Problem UK-based, upscale, global retailer of high-quality, high-priced merchandise faces stiff competition, since economic slowdown that started in 1999 Critical success factors Customer service Appropriate store inventory system Efficient supply chain activities © Prentice Hall 2004
Marks & Spencer (cont.) The SolutionM&S realized that digital era survival depends on the use of information technology in general and electronic commerce in particular Electronic commerce (EC, e-commerce)—a process of buying, selling, transferring, or exchanging products, services, and/or information via electronic networks and computers © Prentice Hall 2004
Marks & Spencer (cont.) M & S initiated several EC initiatives, including: Security Warehouse management Merchandise receiving Inventory control Speeding up the supply of fashion garments Collaborative commerce © Prentice Hall 2004
Marks & Spencer (cont.) The ResultsAs of summer 2002, a turnaround is underway M & S has become a leader and example setter in retailing, resulting in increased profitability and growth © Prentice Hall 2004
Marks & Spencer (cont.) What can we learn…Traditional brick-and-mortar companies face increasing pressures in a competitive marketing environment A possible response is to introduce a variety of e-commerce initiatives that can improve supply chain operation information money from raw materials through factories increase customer service open up markets to more customers © Prentice Hall 2004
Electronic Commerce: Definitions and ConceptsThe Internet has emerged as a major, perhaps eventually the major, worldwide distribution channel for goods, services, managerial and professional jobs This is profoundly changing economics, markets and industry structure, products and services and their flow, consumer segmentation, consumer values, consumer behavior, jobs, and labor markets The impact may be even greater on societies and politics, and on the way we see the world and ourselves in it © Prentice Hall 2004
Electronic Commerce: Definitions and Concepts (cont.)E-commerce defined from the following perspectives: Communications: delivery of goods, services, information, or payments over computer networks or any other electronic means Commercial (trading): provides capability of buying and selling products, services, and information on the Internet and via other online services © Prentice Hall 2004
Electronic Commerce: Definitions and Concepts (cont.)Business process: doing business electronically by completing business processes over electronic networks, thereby substituting information for physical business processes Service: a tool that addresses the desire of governments, firms, consumers, and management to cut service costs while improving the quality of customer service and increasing the speed of service delivery © Prentice Hall 2004
Electronic Commerce: Definitions and Concepts (cont.)Learning: an enabler of online training and education in schools, universities, and other organizations, including businesses Collaborative: the framework for inter- and intraorganizational collaboration Community: provides a gathering place for community members to learn, transact, and collaborate © Prentice Hall 2004
Electronic Commerce: Definitions and Concepts (cont.)e-business: a broader definition of EC, which includes: buying and selling of goods and services servicing customers collaborating with business partners conducting electronic transactions within an organization © Prentice Hall 2004
Electronic Commerce: Definitions and Concepts (cont.)Pure vs. Partial EC depends upon the degree of digitization (the transformation from physical to digital) of: the product (service) sold; the process; and for the delivery agent (or digital intermediary) Brick-and-Mortar organizations are old-economy organizations (corporations) that perform most of their business off-line, selling physical products by means of physical agents © Prentice Hall 2004
Electronic Commerce: Definitions and Concepts (cont.)Virtual (pure-play) organizations conduct their business activities solely online Click-and-mortar organizations conduct some EC activities, but do their primary business in the physical world Electronic market (e-marketplace) online marketplace where buyers and sellers meet to exchange goods, services, money, or information © Prentice Hall 2004
Electronic Commerce: Definitions and Concepts (cont.)Interorganizational information systems (IOSs) allow routine transaction processing and information flow between two or more organizations Intraorganizational information systems enable EC activities to go on within individual organizations © Prentice Hall 2004
Exhibit 1.1: The Dimensions of Electronic Commerce© Prentice Hall 2004
The EC Framework, Classification, and ContentTwo major types of e-commerce: business-to-consumer (B2C) : online transactions are made between businesses and individual consumers business-to-business (B2B): businesses make online transactions with other businesses intrabusiness EC: EC conducted inside an organization (e.g., business-to-employees B2E) © Prentice Hall 2004
The EC Framework, Classification, and Content (cont.)Computer environments Internet: global networked environment Intranet: a corporate or government network that uses Internet tools, such as Web browsers, and Internet protocols Extranet: a network that uses the Internet to link multiple intranets © Prentice Hall 2004
EC Framework EC applications are supported by infrastructure and by five support areas: People Public policy Marketing and advertising Support services Business partnerships © Prentice Hall 2004
Exhibit 1.2: A Framework for Electronic Commerce© Prentice Hall 2004
Classification of EC by Transactions or Interactionsbusiness-to-consumer (B2C) : online transactions are made between businesses and individual consumers business-to-business (B2B): businesses make online transactions with other businesses e-tailing: online retailing, usually B2C © Prentice Hall 2004
Classification of EC by Transactions or Interactions (cont.)business-to-business-to-consumer (B2B2C): e-commerce model in which a business provides some product or service to a client business that maintains its own customers consumer-to-business (C2B): e-commerce model in which individuals use the Internet to sell products or services to organizations or individuals seek sellers to bid on products or services they need © Prentice Hall 2004
Classification of EC by Transactions or Interactions (cont.)consumer-to-consumer (C2C): e-commerce model in which consumers sell directly to other consumers peer-to-peer (P2P): technology that enables networked peer computers to share data and processing with each other directly; can be used in C2C, B2B, and B2C e-commerce © Prentice Hall 2004
Classification of EC by Transactions or Interactions (cont.)mobile commerce ((m-commerce): e-commerce transactions and activities conducted in a wireless environment location-based commerce (l-commerce): m-commerce transactions targeted to individuals in specific locations, at specific times © Prentice Hall 2004
Classification of EC by Transactions or Interactions (cont.)intrabusiness EC: e-commerce category that includes all internal organizational activities that involve the exchange of goods, services, or information among various units and individuals in an organization business-to-employees (B2E): e-commerce model in which an organization delivers services, information, or products to its individual employees © Prentice Hall 2004
Classification of EC by Transactions or Interactions (cont.)collaborative commerce (c-commerce): e-commerce model in which individuals or groups communicate or collaborate online e-learning: the online delivery of information for purposes of training or education exchange (electronic): a public electronic market with many buyers and sellers © Prentice Hall 2004
Classification of EC by Transactions or Interactions (cont.)exchange-to-exchange (E2E): e-commerce model in which electronic exchanges formally connect to one another the purpose of exchanging information e-government: e-commerce model in which a government entity buys or provides goods, services, or information to businesses or individual citizens © Prentice Hall 2004
The Interdisciplinary Nature of ECMajor EC disciplines Computer science Marketing Consumer behavior Finance Economics Management information systems © Prentice Hall 2004
A Brief History of EC 1970s: innovations like electronic funds transfer (EFT)—funds routed electronically from one organization to another (limited to large corporations) electronic data interchange (EDI)— electronically transfer routine documents (application enlarged pool of participating companies to include manufacturers, retailers, services) interorganizational system (IOS)—travel reservation systems and stock trading © Prentice Hall 2004
A Brief History of EC (cont.)1969 U.S. government experiment—the Internet came into being initially used by technical audience of government agencies, academic researchers, and scientists 1990s the Internet commercialized and users flocked to participate in the form of dot-coms, or Internet start-ups Innovative applications ranging from online direct sales to e-learning experiences © Prentice Hall 2004
A Brief History of EC (cont.)Most medium- and large-sized organizations have a Web site Most large U.S. corporations have comprehensive portals 1999 the emphasis of EC shifted from B2C to B2B 2001 the emphasis shifted from B2B to B2E, c-commerce, e-government, e-learning, and m-commerce EC will undoubtedly continue to shift and change © Prentice Hall 2004
A Brief History of EC (cont.)EC successes Virtual EC companies eBay VeriSign AOL Checkpoint Click-and-mortar Cisco General Electric IBM Intel Schwab EC failures 1999, a large number of EC-dedicated companies began to fail EC’s days are not numbered! dot-com failure rate is declining sharply EC field is experiencing consolidation most pure EC companies, are expanding operations and generating increasing sales (Amazon.com) © Prentice Hall 2004
The Success Story of Campusfood.ComProvide interactive menus to college students, using the power of the Internet to replace and/or facilitate the traditional telephone ordering of meals Built the company’s customer base expanding to other universities attracting students generating a list of restaurants from which students could order food for delivery © Prentice Hall 2004
The Success Story of Campusfood.Com (cont.)Now some of these activities are outsourced to a marketing firm, enabling the addition of dozens of schools nationwide Financed through private investors, friends, and family members, the site was built on an investment of less than $1 million Campusfood.com’s revenue is generated through transaction fees—the site takes a 5 % commission on each order from the sellers © Prentice Hall 2004
The Success Story of Campusfood.Com (cont.)At campusfood.com you can: Navigate through a list of local restaurants, their hours of operation, addresses, phone numbers, etc. Browse an interactive menu Bypass “busy” telephone signals to place an order online Access special foods, promotions, and restaurant giveaways Arrange electronic payment of your order © Prentice Hall 2004
The Future of EC the future is bright2004—total online shopping and B2B transactions in the US between $3 to $7 trillion by 2008: number of Internet users worldwide should reach 750 million 50 percent of Internet users will shop EC growth will come from: B2C B2B e-government e-learning B2E c-commerce the future is bright © Prentice Hall 2004
E-commerce Business ModelsBusiness models—a method of doing business by which a company can generate revenue to sustain itself Examples: Name your price Find the best price Dynamic brokering Affiliate marketing © Prentice Hall 2004
E-commerce Business Plans and CasesBusiness plan: a written document that identifies the business goals and outlines the plan of how to achieve them Business case: a written document that is used by managers to garner funding for specific applications or projects; its major emphasis is the justification for a specific investment © Prentice Hall 2004
Structure of Business ModelsBusiness model: A method of doing business by which a company can generate revenue to sustain itself © Prentice Hall 2004
Structure of Business Models (cont.)Revenue model: description of how the company or an EC project will earn revenue Sales Transaction fees Subscription fees Advertising Affiliate fees Other revenue sources © Prentice Hall 2004
Structure of Business Models (cont.)Value proposition: The benefits a company can derive from using EC search and transaction cost efficiency complementarities lock-in novelty aggregation and interfirm collaboration © Prentice Hall 2004
Exhibit 1.4: Common Revenue Models© Prentice Hall 2004
Typical Business Models in ECOnline direct marketing Electronic tendering systems tendering (reverse auction): model in which a buyer requests would-be sellers to submit bids, and the lowest bidder wins Name your own price: a model in which a buyer sets the price he or she is willing to pay and invites sellers to supply the good or service at that price © Prentice Hall 2004
Typical Business Models in EC (cont.)Affiliate marketing: an arrangement whereby a marketing partner (a business, an organization, or even an individual) refers consumers to the selling company’s Web site Viral marketing: word-of-mouth marketing in which customers promote a product or service to friends or other people © Prentice Hall 2004
Typical Business Models in EC (cont.)Group purchasing: quantity purchasing that enables groups of purchasers to obtain a discount price on the products purchased SMEs: small to medium enterprises Online auctions © Prentice Hall 2004
Typical Business Models in EC (cont.)Product and service customization customization: creation of a product or service according to the buyer’s specifications Electronic marketplaces and exchanges Value-chain integrators Value-chain service providers © Prentice Hall 2004
Typical Business Models in EC (cont.)Information brokers Bartering Deep discounting Membership Supply chain improvers Business models can be independent or they can be combined amongst themselves or with traditional business models © Prentice Hall 2004
Example of Supply Chain ImproverOrbis Group changes a linear physical supply chain to an electronic hub Traditional process in the B2B advertising field © Prentice Hall 2004
Example of Supply Chain Improver (cont.)ProductBank simplifies this lengthy process changing the linear flow of products and information to a digitized hub © Prentice Hall 2004
Benefits of EC Benefits to organizations Rapid time-to-marketLower communication costs Efficient procurement Improved customer relations Up-to-date company material No city business permits and fees Other benefits Global reach Cost reduction Supply chain improvements Extended hours: 24/7/365 Customization New business models Vendors’ specialization © Prentice Hall 2004
Benefits of EC (cont.) Benefits to consumers UbiquityMore products and services Cheaper products and services Instant delivery Information availability Participation in auctions Electronic communities “Get it your way” No sales tax © Prentice Hall 2004
Benefits of EC (cont.) Benefits to society TelecommutingHigher standard of living Hope for the poor Availability of public services © Prentice Hall 2004
Limitations of EC © Prentice Hall 2004
Barriers of EC Security Trust and risk Lack of qualified personnelLack of business models Culture User authentication and lack of public key infrastructure Organization Fraud Slow navigation on the Internet Legal issues © Prentice Hall 2004
The Digital RevolutionDigital economy: An economy that is based on digital technologies, including digital communication networks, computers, software, and other related information technologies; also called the Internet economy, the new economy, or the Web economy © Prentice Hall 2004
The Digital Revolution (cont.)A global platform over which people and organizations interact, communicate, collaborate, and search for information Includes the following characteristics: A vast array of digitizable products Consumers and firms conducting financial transactions digitally Microprocessors and networking capabilities embedded in physical goods © Prentice Hall 2004
New Business EnvironmentCustomers are becoming more powerful Created due to advances in science occurring at an accelerated rate Results in more and more technology Rapid growth in technology results in a large variety of more complex systems © Prentice Hall 2004
New Business Environment (cont.)Characteristics in the business environment A more turbulent environment with more business problems and opportunities Stronger competition Need for organizations to make decisions more frequently A larger scope for decisions because more factors More information and/or knowledge needed for making decisions © Prentice Hall 2004
Environment-Response-Support ModelCritical response activities traditional actions such as lowering cost and closing unprofitable facilities introduce innovative actions such as customizing or creating new products or providing superb customer service © Prentice Hall 2004
Exhibit 1.6: Major Business Pressures and the Role of EC© Prentice Hall 2004
Major Business PressuresStrong competition Global economy Regional trade agreements (e.g. NAFTA) Extremely low labor cost in some countries Frequent and significant changes in markets Increased power of consumers Market and economic pressures © Prentice Hall 2004
Major Business Pressures (cont.)Changing nature of workforce Government deregulation of banking and other services Shrinking government subsidies Increased importance of ethical and legal issues Increased social responsibility of organizations Rapid political changes Societal and environmental pressures © Prentice Hall 2004
Major Business Pressures (cont.)Rapid technological obsolescence Increase innovations and new technologies Information overload Rapid decline in technology cost vs. performance ratio Technological pressures © Prentice Hall 2004
Organizational ResponsesStrategic systems Continuous improvement efforts and business process reengineering—including business process reengineering (BPR) Customer relationship management (CRM)—divided into the following areas Operational CRM Analytical CRM Collaborative CRM © Prentice Hall 2004
Organizational Responses (cont.)Business alliances Electronic markets Reductions in cycle time and time-to-market Cycle time reduction: Shortening the time it takes for a business to complete a productive activity from its beginning to end © Prentice Hall 2004
Organizational Responses (cont.)Empowerment of employees Supply chain improvements Mass customization: make-to-order in large quantities in an efficient manner Mass customization: Production of large quantities of customized items © Prentice Hall 2004
Organizational Responses (cont.)Intrabusiness: from sales force automation to inventory Knowledge management Knowledge management (KM): The process of creating or capturing knowledge, storing and protecting it, updating and maintaining it, and using it © Prentice Hall 2004
Putting It All TogetherTask facing each organization is how to put together the components that will enable the organization to transform itself to the digital economy and gain competitive advantage by using EC Many employ corporate portals A major gateway through which employees, business partners, and the public can enter a corporate Web site © Prentice Hall 2004
Exhibit 1.8: The Networked Organization© Prentice Hall 2004
Managerial Issues Is it real?How should we evaluate the magnitude of the business pressures? Why is B2B e-commerce so attractive? There are so many EC failures—how can one avoid them? © Prentice Hall 2004
Managerial Issues (cont.)What should be my company’s strategy toward EC? How do we transform our organization into a digital one? What are the top challenges of EC? © Prentice Hall 2004
Summary Definition of EC and description of its various categories.The content and framework of EC. The major types of EC transactions. The major business models. © Prentice Hall 2004
Summary (cont.) Benefits to organizations, consumers, and society.Limitations of EC. The role of the digital revolution. The role of EC in combating pressures in the business environment. © Prentice Hall 2004
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
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