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Published byKellen Burlison Modified over 6 years ago

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Cardiac Output: And Influencing Factors

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Cardiac Output Amount of blood pumped out by each ventricle in 1 min CO = HR x SV

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Cardiac Reserve The difference between resting and maximal CO

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Stroke Volume SV = EDV – ESV –EDV (volume of blood in ventricle after diastole) –ESV (volume of blood remaining in ventricle after contraction) –With each beat, ~ 60% of blood in chambers is emptied

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Frank-Starling law of the heart Preload = critical factor in determining SV

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Preload Degree to which cardiac cells are stretched before contraction –Optimal length determined by: If max # of cross bridge attachments occur If max force of contraction occurs

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Venous Return The volume of blood returning to heart and stretching ventricles If venous return increases, EDV increases; therefore SV increases Left and right ventricles have equal venous return; therefore blood does not “pool” or backflow in heart

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Contractility Contractile strength of heart (due to increased CA 2+ ) Causes increased release of blood (therefore lower ESV)

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Afterload Force to eject blood from ventricles Constant in healthy people; lower in people with hypertension (therefore increases ESV and decreases SV)

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